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不同运算策略下工作记忆对小学生乘法运算的影响

【作者】 施子微

【导师】 邓赐平;

【作者基本信息】 华东师范大学, 发展与教育心理学, 2018, 硕士

【摘要】 本研究旨在研究小学生双位数乘法运算的策略对于乘法运算结果的影响,以及工作记忆的各个成分对于多位数乘法运算和策略选择的影响。实验一使用被试间设计,三组被试分别在使用结合律策略、使用分配率策略、以及可自由选择两种策略之一三种条件下对双位数乘法进行运算,记录反应时和正确率。结果显示使使用用分配率策略组反应时明显低于使用结合律和自由选择策略组,使用结合律组与自由选择策略组之间的反应时没有显著差异,三组被试的正确率没有差异。在策略自由选择上,被试选择分配律的频率高于结合律,并且会受到题目类型的影响。实验二使用被试内和被试间的混合实验设计,三组被试分别在中央执行受干扰、语音环路受干扰和视空受干扰三种条件下依次使用自由选择策略、结合律策略和分配律策略进行双位数乘法计算。结果发现,三种干扰下的策略选择并无差异。中央执行干扰组和视空干扰组之间反应时差异显著,在中央执行干扰下,被试的反应时更长。语音干扰组和视空干扰组之间正确率差异显著,相对于视空干扰,在语音干扰下被试的反应时会更高。中央执行组和语音干扰组之间差异不显著。结果表明,在使用不同运算策略情况下,视空模板的干扰效应要低于语音环路的干扰效应和中央执行系统的干扰效应。

【Abstract】 The object of this research is to investigate the influence of strategy on the result of the double-digit multiplication,as well as the influence of each component of working memory on the multi-digit multiplication and its strategy.We use between subject design in the first experiment,three groups of subject use associative property strategy,distributive property strategy,and the free choice between the above two strategies respectively to solve the double-digit multiplication,while we record their reaction time and accuracy.The result shows that the reaction time of the associative property strategy group is significantly lower than the distributive property strategy group and the free choice group,while the reaction time of the associative property strategy group and the free choice group has no significant differences.And the accuracy of the three groups has no significant differences either.Regarding the use frequency of the strategies,subject use more distributive property strategy than associative property strategy,and the selection is influenced by the type of the problem.In the experiment two,we use both the between subject design and the within-subject design.The subjects of the interference group on central executive are asked to use free choice,associative property strategy and distributive property strategy to solve the double-digit multiplication.This procedure is also applied to the interference groups on phonological loop and visuospatial sketch pad.The frequency of strategy selection has no significant differences among three interference groups.The reaction time between the interference groups on central executive and the interference groups on visuospatial sketch pad has significant difference.Specifically,subjects in the interference groups on central executive have a slower reaction time.Moreover,the reaction time between the interference groups on phonological loop and the interference groups on visuospatial sketch pad has significant difference.Specifically,subjects in the interference groups on phonological loop have a slower reaction time.While there is no significant difference on reaction time between the interference groups on central executive and the interference groups on phonological loop.The interference effect of visuospatial sketch pad is lower than the interference effect of phonological loop and central executive under different strategies.

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  • 【网络出版投稿人】 华东师范大学
  • 【分类号】B842.3
  • 【下载频次】31
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