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基于学生全面发展的体育教学方式理论与实践研究

【作者】 党林秀

【导师】 董翠香;

【作者基本信息】 华东师范大学, 体育人文社会学, 2018, 博士

【摘要】 21世纪是以高新技术为核心的知识经济占主导地位的时代,是人口结构越来越多样化、科技越来越发达、信息化程度越来越高、对人才的创新能力要求越来越高的时代。为了应对这种变化,我国基础教育改革为全面推行素质教育、落实"立德树人"之理念、发展学生的核心素养,大力倡导采用自主、合作、探究的教学方式。为此,完善体育教学方式的理论体系、推动体育教学方式的转变成为体育课程教学改革则需要解决的重要问题。本研究通过文献资料法、访谈法、问卷调查法、观察法、实验法等研究方法来收集与学生全面发展及教学方式相关的研究资料,并通过知识图谱分析法、内容分析法、归纳与比较法、以及配对样本T检验、独立样本T检验等方法对收集的资料进行定性与定量的分析,研究表明:1、国内外基础教育核心素养以及体育课程目标都十分注重学生的全面发展,强调"全人教育"。对学生全面发展的理解分为宏观、中观和微观三个层次,其中微观层面的全面发展对应当下核心素养所涉及的能力与素养。在微观层面,体育与健康课程对促进学生的全面发展主要表现在两个方面:(1)一般学科素养。包括交流沟通能力、批判性思维能力、思考的能力、语言技能、责任感、尊重自我与他人、创造力等指标。(2)体育学科素养。包括体育与健康知识、运动技能、安全意识、运动能力、审美表达能力、体能水平、体育道德、情绪控制等指标。2.体育教学方式是教师与学生为达成一定的教学目标,在教学活动互动过程中所呈现出来的外显活动方式和内隐活动方式。其中外显活动方式包含语言和行为方式,内隐活动方式特指思维活动方式,外显活动方式是思维活动方式的外在表现形式。体育教学方式主要由教学过程中的人际关系与能够体现教学行为的教学要素构成,其外延涉及宏观、中观、微观三个层次。宏观层次的教学方式主要是指向教学观念层面,中观层次的教学方式主要是指向能够体现其构成要素的教学模式与教学风格。无论是宏观层次还是中观层次的教学方式,其发展历程,均彰显了体育教学方式的转变趋势是由最初的关注教师的"教"逐渐向关注学生的"学"与"发展"转变,教学过程中的决策由教师全权决定向师生共同决定,并逐渐过渡为给学生赋予一定的决策权。3.我国体育教学方式的转变还未能深入"骨髓",存在的主要问题有:(1)转变体育教学方式所倡导的理念基本上已得到认可,但在实践过程中实施还十分困难,当下体育教师的教学价值取向仍注重"学科精熟"与"学习过程",而对关乎学生核心素养及全面发展的"自我实现"、"社会责任"关注不够。(2)实际教学过程中所采用的教学方式看似有所变化,但实质上还是侧重于"以教师的教为中心",还未将"学生的学" "学生的发展"置于教学的中心。(3)实际教学中教师较多地关注学生技术动作的掌握,而较少考虑学生的全面发展及核心素养的培育。4.在"以学为中心"的宏观层次教学方式理念下,基于学生全面发展的体育教学方式被划分为三大类:机械接受式体育教学方式、有意义接受式体育教学方式与有意义发现式体育教学方式。通过对有意义接受式和发现式体育教学方式进行研究,发现这两类教学方式在基本含义、适用范畴、基本特征、匹配的教学模式与风格、实施要求等方面有其各自的特点,同时也发现二者亦有着一些共性的特征,即:(1)教学理念应突出"以学生为中心",变革"以教为主"的教学方式;(2)师生关系应是平等、和谐、友好的、合作的;(3)教学环境应是安全、舒适、富有支持性;(4)教学组织形式应是多样的,避免整齐划一;(5)教学策略应具有针对性的和高效性。5.合作学习相对常规体育教学方式而言,更有利于促进学生的全面发展,更有利于落实学生发展的核心素养和达成体育与健康课程的各领域目标(除身体健康领域外)。合作学习使学生在"交流沟通能力、团队协作能力、责任感、思考能力、学习能力、人际关系、基础知识与技能、参与度、愉悦程度"等方面指标的发展程度上优于常规体育教学方式。通过实施合作学习,教师的教学观念、教师教的方式与学生学的方式以及师生之间的关系,均有所转变。6.虽然合作学习有利于促进学生的全面发展,有利于落实基础教育体育课程改革所倡导的基本理念,但在实施过程中却是困难重重,主要困境有:学生不具备合作学习的能力、教师对合作学习的理解不到位、教师很难在完成教学任务与培养学生学习能力之间找到平衡点、教师日常工作量大没有足够的时间设计教学材料。为此,建议体育教师在运用合作学习之时,应注意克服这四个方面的困境。

【Abstract】 The 21st century is the era,in which high-tech is the core of the knowledge economy.The 21st century is also the era,in which the population structure is more diversified,technology more developed,the level of informationization higher,and the demand for people’s innovation higher.In order to cope with this change,China’s basic education reform implement the quality education,reinforce the concept of "cul-tivate moral personality",develop students’ core competences,and constantly stress the need for changing teaching approaches.Hence,it is important to improve the the-oretical framework of PE teaching approaches,and promote the transformation of PE teaching approaches.This research has adopted documentation,interview,questionnaire,observation,and experimental methods to collect data related to students’ comprehensive devel-opment and teaching methods.The research also employed the knowledge map analy-sis,content analysis,induction and comparison method as well as matching sample T test,and independent sample T test,to process the data qualitatively and quantitative-ly.The results showed that:1.The core of domestic and foreign basic education and physical education cur-riculum emphasizes the overall development of students,stressing "holistic educa-tion." Students’ overall development is from micro-,meso-and macro-levels.The mi-cro-level development includes the core abilities and quality.At micro-level,Health and PE develop two aspects:(1)the general core of discipline,including:communica-tion skills,critical thinking,language skills,responsibilities,respect,and creativity.(2)the core of PE,including:knowledge of PE and health,athletic ability,safety awareness,sporting ability,aesthetic expression,physical fitness,sportsmanship,and emotional control.2.The connotation of the teaching approaches of physical education is the ex-plicit and implicit ways reflected from the agreement between teachers and students in achieving certain teaching objectives.The explicit ways include language and behav-iour,and the implicit ways in thinking activities.The ways of explicit activity con-tains the macro,medium and micro three levels,mainly reflecting interpersonal rela-tionships and teaching elements in the teaching process.The macro-level teaching ap-proaches mainly embody the teaching concepts.The meso teaching style is mainly about the teaching style and teaching models.Whether it is the development of teach-ing styles or teaching models,the highlight is the transformation from teachers’ teach-ing to students’ learning and development.The decision-making in the teaching pro-cess shifted from teachers’ absolute decision making to students’ partially decision-making power.3.China’s PE teaching approaches are still at the periphery,not into the "bone marrow".The current problems are:(1)the concept of physical education teaching reform has been generally recognized,but in practice,it is still very difficult to im-plement.For instance,the current physical education teaching is still values "master-ing the discipline" and "learning process ",while not students’ core qualities,self-actualization,and social responsibility.(2)It seems the actual teaching process has changed,but in essence,it is still "teacher’s teaching as the centre",not the "students’learning" or "students’ development".(3)The actual physical education teaching pays more attention to students’ movement learning,while less consider the overall devel-opment of students and the cultivation of core quality.4.Students’ overall development was developed upon the macro level of educa-tional concept,"learning as the centre".Three types of teaching are identified:the ac-ceptance,meaningful acceptance,and meaningful discovery.Meaningful acceptance and meaningful discovery are unique in basic meaning,adaptation category,basic characteristics,teaching approaches and models,implementation requirements,but also share similarities:(1)teaching philosophy highlighting the "student-cantered"teaching,and the modification of the teacher-centred,(2)equal,harmonious,friendly and cooperative relationship between teachers and students,(3)safe,comfortable and supportive teaching environment,(4)a variety of forms of teaching and learning plans,avoiding uniformity,rigid dogma,and obedient behaving,and(5)focused and efficient teaching strategies.5.The "cooperative learning,is related to the overall development of the stu-dents.Cooperative learning is helpful in achieving the target area of sports and health curriculum than routine teaching.Cooperative learning makes the students developing"communication ability,teamwork ability,responsibility,thinking ability,learning ability,interpersonal relationship,basic knowledge and skills,participation degree and pleasure degree",which are better than the development in the conventional PE teach-ing methods.Through the implementation of cooperative learning,the teacher’s teach-ing concept,the way teachers teach and the way students learn and the relationship between teachers and students,have changed.6.Even the benefits for students’ overall development,it is still very difficult to implement cooperative learning.For instance,students do not have the ability to co-operate learning;teachers do not understand the cooperative learning;teachers cannot find a balance between complete the teaching tasks and training students to learning ability,and teachers do not have enough time to design the teaching materials.Hence,to use cooperative learning,PE teachers need to pay attention to these four aspects.

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  • 【网络出版投稿人】 华东师范大学
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