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上海市学龄儿童交通性体力活动及影响因素分析

【作者】 何玲玲

【导师】 林琳; 伏玉玲;

【作者基本信息】 华东师范大学, 生态学, 2018, 硕士

【摘要】 背景:改革开放以来,随着快速的城市化进程,我国经济、社会、环境等发生了剧烈的变化,学龄儿童逐渐开始形成"静态"生活方式,体力活动水平下降,超重/肥胖发生率、视力不良率等问题也日益严重。同时,上下学两个时段与上下班高峰时段重叠,学校周边在较短的时间内形成较大的交通流,导致交通拥堵、秩序混乱等问题严重。鼓励学生步行或骑自行车上下学,不仅有助于提高学生的体力活动水平,降低超重肥胖发生率,而且能有效地缓解上下学时段学校周边交通压力。因此,本研究将从学校角度出发分析学龄儿童上下学交通方式特征并探讨学校特征及其周边建成环境与学龄儿童上下学交通方式的影响,同时以学龄儿童为对象探讨影响其上学时积极通勤频率的因素。方法:本文利用分层抽样选取上海市32所学校,数据收集主要采用以下方法:从学校角度利用行为观察法统计每所学校学生上下学交通方式,利用问卷调查法从学生个人角度收集相关信息,以及利用百度API客观测量学校周边以及学龄儿童居住地附近建设环境特征。最后,统一使用SPSS23.0进行数据分析,具体分析方法包括:描述性统计分析、单因素方差分析、卡方检验、简单线性回归分析、主成分分析以及二元logistic回归分析等。结果:研究一的主要结果有:(1)步行仍然是上海市学龄儿童上下学的主要交通方式,乘电瓶车已成为上海市小学生上下学主要交通方式之一;(2)学生上学时采用乘小汽车、乘电瓶车两种交通方式的比例高于放学时的比例;男生独自步行上下学的比例高于女生,而由家长陪同步行上下学的比例均低于女生;中心城区所有学校步行上下学分担率均超过50%,郊区学校步行上下学分担率相对较低。(3)学校附近的建成环境对学生步行上学交通方式选择的影响显著,共发现32个变量(包括交通设施、人口密度和土地混合使用等方面)与步行上学的可能性呈显著正相关。相比上学时,学校特征及其周边的建成环境与学生放学时交通方式的选择有显著相关性的变量较少。研究二的主要结果有:(1)上海市学龄儿童在通常的一周中采用积极交通方式上学达3次及其以上的人数较少,仅占43.1%;(2)与社会关系的互动情况对学龄儿童是否是经常步行或骑自行车上学有重要影响。父母的体力活动水平、父母对孩子参与体力活动的态度、家人朋友等直接参与学龄儿童的体力活动或静态行为、家人鼓励孩子参与体力活动等与社会关系的互动情况相关的变量与学龄儿童是否经常步行或骑自行车上学有显著相关性;(3)孩子的休闲性体力活动水平、学校在校学生人数、学校与家的距离、居住地200m缓冲区内餐厅的数量等变量与孩子是否经常步行或骑自行车等积极交通方式上学有显著相关性。结论:步行仍然是上海市学龄儿童上下学的主要交通方式,但是经常采用步行上学的学生人数较少、状况不容乐观。影响学龄上下学交通方式选择的因素很多,其中学校周边建成环境、与社会关系的互动情况2个方面因素的影响最大。

【Abstract】 Background:Rapid urbanization and fast economic development since 1978 transformed Chinese cities and the lifestyle of Chinese residents,as a result,school age children gradually formed a "sedentary" lifestyle.Physical activity of school age children in China is decreasing while the prevalence of overweight/obesity and poor eyesight is increasing in the recent years.Meanwhile,children travel to and from school is overlapping with the morning and afternoon traffic peak hours of a city,therefore school-age children’s commuting to and from school further add to the traffic volume around school.Encouraging children walking and cycling to and from school can increase their physical activity level,decrease prevalence of overweight and obesity,and levitate the traffic congestion around schools.The objectives of this study are two folds,1)at school level,exploring the characteristics of travel mode to and from school and its influencing factors;2)at individual level,exploring correlates of active commuting to school.Methods:We selected 32 public elementary schools located in 16 urban districts in Shanghai using stratified sampling.The data are collected as follow:behavior observation method was implemented to tally student travel modes to and from school,CLASS-C survey was used to collect relevant information at individual level,and Baidu API was employed to objectively measure the built environment attributes around the school and school age children’s home.Descriptive statistics,one-way ANOVA,chi square test,simple linear regression analysis,principal component analysis and binary logistic regression analysis were performed using SPSS 23.0.Results:Three main findings of study one are identified.First,walking is still the leading travel mode going to and coming from school for school-age children in Shanghai,and following by electronic bike,another main travel mode.Secondly,at the school level,the proportion of travelling by car and electronic bike to school is higher than that of coming back from school;more boys walk alone to and from school,meanwhile more girls walk accompanied by adults to and from school;more than half of students from schools located in the center areas walk to and from school,but in suburban area,this proportion is much lower.Thirdly,built environmental measures such as transportation facilities,counts of different destinations,and residential building density were positively correlated with the rates of walking to school,but negatively correlated with the rates of inactive commuting to school.More school neighborhood built environmental attributes were identified to be associated with traveling to school than that of traveling from school.Three findings of study two are identified.First,43.1%of students walk or bike to school more than three times a week.Secondly,social interactions and social supports,such as physical activity level of parents,parents’ understanding on the adequate amount of children participating in physical activity,family members or friends directly involved in school-age children’s physical activity or sedentary behavior,and family members encouraging children to participate in physical activity,were found to have a strong influence on the frequency of walking or biking to school.Thirdly,the child’s leisure physical activity,school enrollment,distance between school and home,and restaurant density in 200m buffer of home were significantly associated with the frequency of walking or biking to school.Conclusion:Walking is still the main travel mode school age children use to commute to and from school in Shanghai,but the percentage of school age children who walk to school more than 3 times a week is relatively low.As a result,the level of transportation related physical activity of school age children in Shanghai is still low.Among those factors that were identified to be correlated with the travel mode to and from school,school neighborhood environment attributes and social supports are the most important factors.

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  • 【网络出版投稿人】 华东师范大学
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