中国基础教育博硕士论文库

节点文献

基于学生的我国基础教育运动技能课程内容选择研究

【作者】 殷荣宾

【导师】 季浏;

【作者基本信息】 华东师范大学, 运动人体科学, 2018, 博士

【摘要】 在我国体育与健康课程深化改革的全面实施阶段,为了进一步完善体育课程理论体系,有效指导体育课程实践工作,基于学生选择基础教育运动技能课程内容十分必要和重要,不但有助于改变我国基础教育运动技能课程内容缺乏有效衔接的长期弊病,同时也为中小学体育教师选择运动技能课程内容提供科学依据。本研究通过文献资料法、问卷调查法、访谈调查法、实地考察法和数理统计法等研究方法对英美日基础教育运动技能课程内容体系、我国基础教育运动技能课程内容选择的历时演变、我国基础教育运动技能课程内容选择的价值取向以及基于学生的基础教育运动技能课程内容选择现状进行研究,获得研究结论如下:(1)英美日基础教育学校体育构建了完善的运动技能课程内容体系,运动技能课程内容丰富多样且层次分明,各学段运动技能课程内容相互衔接并与学生的身心发展相适应。英美日构建基础教育运动技能课程内容体系对我国选择运动技能课程内容的启示为:基于体育素养选择运动技能课程内容;各学段运动技能课程内容递进衔接;体能与运动技能课程内容并重;运动技能课程内容趋向生活化与终身体育相嵌合;运动技能课程内容彰显本国体育传统与文化;建立运动技能课程内容更新机制和环境。(2)建国后我国基础教育运动技能课程内容的类别逐步增多并更加完善,形成主要包括田径类、体操类、球类、游戏类、武术和民族传统体育类、游泳和冰雪类、新兴运动类等多样化的课程内容类别;田径类、体操类和球类运动项目作为我国基础教育各学段的主体运动技能课程内容,具有相对稳定性和延续性的特征;基础教育各学段选修内容的比重逐渐增大,运动技能课程内容的选择权利逐步放开;基础教育运动技能课程内容选择呈现竞技化倾向,注重体育学科知识和运动技能的系统性和完整性。(3)基础教育运动技能课程内容选择取向与体育课程价值取向存在共济关系,建国后我国基础教育运动技能课程内容选择取向共经历了四个演进阶段:强调体育课程为国家服务的社会本位;融合体质与技能教育的学科本位;身心一体视域下的多元课程价值取向;以"学生发展为中心"的学生本位。基于学生选择运动技能课程内容的价值诉求包括:尊重学生的主体性;回归学生的生活世界;注重运动技能课程内容的终身化和民族化;破除运动技能课程内容的竞技化;强调运动技能课程内容的衔接性与结构化。(4)我国基础教育运动技能课程内容选择亟待解决的现实问题包括:确立运动技能课程内容的优选标准,划定运动技能课程内容的选择范围,平衡运动技能课程内容的容量和难度,确定各学段运动技能课程内容的递进梯度,进行竞技运动项目的教材化改造。基于学生选择运动技能课程内容的原则为教育性原则、健身性原则、趣味性原则、可行性原则、安全性原则。基础教育各学段运动技能课程内容应以继续性、顺序性和衔接性为依据进行梯次递进,小学低年级以体能、基本身体活动和游戏为主,小学高年级以体能和运动项目共同技能为主,初中阶段以体能和多种运动项目为主,高中阶段以体能和专项运动为主。基础教育各学段学生认为应该学习的运动项目类别排序存在学段差异,部分运动项目类别排序存在性别差异。基础教育各学段学生学习过的运动项目较为固定和重复,各学段学生喜欢的运动项目与正在学习的运动项目并未完全形成一致;学生正在学习和学习过的运动技能课程内容均以田径类、球类和体操类运动项目为主,缺少新兴运动和民族民间体育类运动项目。学生对喜欢的运动项目想要掌握的程度小学高年级和初中达到课程标准的要求,高中低于课程标准的要求;学生对学习过的运动项目掌握到的程度小学高年级达到课程标准的要求,初中和高中低于课程标准的要求;体育教师对学生正在学习的运动项目要求掌握的程度小学高年级达到课程标准的要求,初中和高中低于课程标准的要求。体育教师应基于学生选择符合学生运动需求与兴趣爱好的运动技能课程内容,同时提高教学要求,以达到课程标准对基础教育各学段运动技能学习的规定。

【Abstract】 In the stage of full operation of Chinese physical education and health curriculum deepening reform,in order to further improve theory system of physical education and health curriculum,and effective guide practice work,it is necessary and important to select motor skill curriculum contents based on students in basic education.It is help to change long term problem of motor skill curriculum contents lacking effective cohesive.It could also provide scientific basis for physical education teachers selecting motor skill curriculum contents.Using literature method,questionnaire survey,interviewing method,field research method and mathematical statistics method,this paper researches British,American and Japanese basic education motor skill curriculum contents,diachronic evolution of Chinese motor skill curriculum contents selection in basic education,interprets and analyzes value orientation of selecting basic education motor skill curriculum contents,and lastly explores motor skill curriculum contents selecting status based on students in basic education.It gets conclusions as follows:(1)British,America and Japan have been constructed complete motor skill curriculum contents in basic education which have the characteristics of rich variety and distinct gradations.Motor skill curriculum contents in each period dovetail each other and adapt to students’ physical and mental development.It enlightens selecting motor skill curriculum contents in many aspects to our country:organizing motor skill curriculum contents according to physical literacy;emphasizing on motor skill curriculum content of progressive cohesion;pay both attention to fitness and motor skill;has tendency of combining life and lifelong sport;present national sport tradition and culture;establish motor skill curriculum contents innovation mechanism and environment.(2)The categories of motor skill curriculum contents in basic education have been increased and improved gradually after the funding of China.It includes track and field,gymnastics,ball games,sport games,Wushu and traditional sport,swimming,snow and ice sports,and emerging sports.Track and field,gymnastics and ball sports as the main body of motor skill curriculum contents in basic education have the feature of relative stability and continuity.The proportion of elective curriculum contents for basic education students has become gradually increasing and the choosing right of selecting motor skill curriculum contents has progressively opened.Motor skill curriculum contents selecting in basic education presents competitive tendency,and pays attention to the system and integrity of physical education discipline knowledge and motor skills.(3)Motor skill curriculum contents selective orientation and physical education value orientations have the fraternal relationship in basic education,The development of motor skill curriculum contents selective orientation in China has been experienced four stages.The first stage is physical education is needed to serve the country,the second stage is the focus is to combine fitness building with motor skill training,the third stage is diverse curriculum value orientation from the integration of body and mind,and the last stage is "student development as the center" standard which put the students in the center.The value appeal of selecting motor skill curriculum contents based on students includes:respecting the students’ subjectivity;returning to the students’ life world;paying attention to the lifelong and nationalization of motor skill curriculum content;breaking the athletic of motor skill curriculum contents;and lastly emphasizing the cohesion and structured of motor skill curriculum contents.(4)The realistic problems urgently to be solved in selecting motor skill curriculum contents in basic education of China as follows:establishing motor skill curriculum contents selecting criteria;determine the scope of motor skill curriculum contents;balance capacity and the difficulty of motor skill curriculum contents;determine the period of motor skill curriculum contents of progressive gradient;reform the competitive sports into teaching materials.The principles selecting motor skill curriculum contents based on students as follows:educational principle,the principle of keeping fit,interesting principle,feasibility principle,security principle.Selecting motor skills curriculum content in basic education should be according to the principles of successive,order and cohesion as a basis to progressive:lower grade of the elementary school is given priority to physical fitness,basic physical activities and games.The higher grades of elementary school is given priority to physical fitness and sports common skills.The junior middle school stage is given priority to physical fitness and a variety of sports.The senior high school stage is given priority to physical fitness and specific sport skills.Sports categories which students think should be learned exist period differences,some sports categories exist gender differences.The sports which students studied are relatively fixed and repetition in each period of basic education.The sports which students liked and are learning has not fully form consistent in each period.Motor skill curriculum contents which students learning and learned are given priority to the track and field sports,ball games and gymnastics movements,but lack of emerging sports and national folk sports.The extent wanted to grasp of the sports which students liked achieves the requirement of the curriculum standards in the elementary school higher grades and junior middle school,but lower than the curriculum standard requirement in senior high school.The student master degree of studied sports achieves the requirement of the curriculum standard in the elementary school higher grades,but lower than curriculum standard requirement in the junior middle school and senior high school.The sports which Physical education teachers required to master degree that the students are learning achieves the requirement of the curriculum standards in the elementary school higher grades,but lower than curriculum standard requirement in the junior middle school and senior high school.PE teachers should select motor skill curriculum contents based on students which according with students’ sport needs and interests,and improve teaching requirements at the same time in order to achieve curriculum standard in each period of basic education motor skill learning.

移动知网

全球学术快报

  • 【网络出版投稿人】 华东师范大学
节点文献中: