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20世纪90年代以来美国新品格教育的实践进展研究

【作者】 徐菁

【导师】 卜玉华;

【作者基本信息】 华东师范大学, 少年儿童组织与思想意识教育, 2018, 硕士

【摘要】 在全球化、信息化、市场化以及社会变迁剧烈的时代,如何为新时代培育出品格高尚的人成为世界各国重要的教育议题。我国自上世纪90年代以来一直处于的社会转型期,传统社会价值和道德教育方式也受到了极大的冲击,如何寻求新价值方向和有效的教育方式方法,也成为新时代的话题。美国自上世纪70年代以来,便对本国品格教育问题进行了研究,其品格教育的政策、理念与方式方法都被我国学界所关注。但最近30年以来,其品格教育的课程、实施项目以及实践状况到底如何,需要进一步的考察。在于此,本人利用留学美国一年的机会,深度研讨了相关文献,并考察了美国的一些幼儿园和学校,探索了美国在品格教育方面在最近三十年的进展状况。论文共由五部分构成,遵循从历史到当下、从宏观到微观、从理论到实践的逻辑展开。第一部分为绪论,主要介绍了研究背景、意义以及本文的研究问题、基本概念和研究方法,并同时综述了国内相关的研究,明确了本研究的出发点以及宗旨所在。第一章主要陈述了近三十年美国新品格教育的发展背景,内容主要包括上世纪90年代时的美国新品格教育的历史特征、近三十年来美国政府和社会对新品格教育的重视与政策支持,学术界对当时占有主导影响力的品格教育理论的批判,以及学术界重新建构的新品格教育理论。本章为全文描绘了近三十年美国新品格教育的历史、政策、社会以及思想界基础,也为第二、第三章铺设了必要的宏观背景。第二章是论文的主体部分之一,重点分析了新品格教育的课程与项目。一些富有影响力的课程包括学前到高中阶段的IM4U课程,"品格至要"课程和"长颈鹿"课程,项目方面重点介绍了针对频发的校园冲突和欺凌问题而在被当前学校中具体运用的两个卓有成效的项目。论文主要陈述了这些课程和项目的基本主张、实践策略以及当前的应用推广情况。第三章是对美国幼儿园和小学校进行的实践考察,也是论文的主要内容之一,主要记录和分析了同伴冲突与校园欺凌的情境下教师的教育策略、背后所蕴含的教育理论以及相应的政策理念对他们教育行为的影响等问题。这一章是从教育实践层面进一步清晰美国新品格教育的实际进展状态。第四章是美国新品格教育所面临的挑战,对新品格教育的合理性、实践成效以及存在的不足进行了分析。本文认为,总体上,近三十年来美国新品格教育的实践成效是值得肯定的,积累了很多富有借鉴意义的课程方案、项目方案以及教育教学方式方法。这些成就的取得与美国政府的高度重视、社会关注以及学术界的理论引领都是密不可分的。当然,我们还要客观地看待美国新品格教育的不足之处,比如,师资培训不足、缺乏相应的评价机制、以及脱离道德情境而简单进行道德灌输的情况也很常见;同时,美国学术界过分强调学校和个人在品格教育上的责任,而忽视社会、经济等因素在其中的影响力。

【Abstract】 How to develop a man of good character for the new era of globalization,information and social change has become one of the important education issues in the world.Since the 1990s,China has been in a period of social transition,the traditional social values and modes of moral education are coming under attack.How to seek the new value direction and effective ways and methods of moral education has become the hot educational topic of this new era.Since the 1980s,the United States has launched the new character education movement and its policies,ideas and methods have gradually caused Chinese scholars attention.However,we still need to get a closer examination of the implementation of its curriculums,programs and present practice in recent 30 years.So I took the opportunity of studying in the United States to explore the development of American new character education in the recent 30 years.I studied a numberr of related literature and papers,and I also investigated one kindergarten and some public schools in the United States.This thesis consists of five parts.The first part is an introduction,it mainly introduces the research background,research significance,research questions,definitions of character education and some terms related to it,research methods,and the existing research of American character education.The introduction part has expressed the origin and purpose of this study.The first chapter reviews the development of the new character education in recent three decades.It is mainly about the historic features of American new character education,the attention and policy support of federal government,the support from the whole society,the criticism of the dominant character education theories of that time,as well as construction of new character education theories by the experts or scholars who support American new character education.This chapter depicts the development,policy,social and ideological basis of American new character education in past thirty years in order to show the macro background of new character education which is necessary for the following two chapters.The second chapter is the main part of the paper which mainly analyzes curriculums and programs of American new character education.Some influential courses such as IM4U,Character Counts and the Giraffe Project are from pre-school stage to high school stage.As for programs,I mainly introduce "Teaching Students to be Peacemakers"(TSP)and "Caring School Community",which are not only feasible,but also effective in practical level.TSP has been applied to resolve peer conflicts and CSC is about campus bullying.Thesis mainly states the basic claims,practice strategies,the current implementation,’influence and popularized status of these curriculum and programs.The third chapter is the practical investigation of a kindergarten and an elementary school in the United States which is also one of the main chapters of this thesis.I record the peer conflict and bullying in the context of schooling.So the aim of this part is to analyze the teachers’ education strategies,their education belief,and the education policies which have impacted on their education behaviors’ and so on.This chapter tries to elicit the current progress of American new character education more clearly from practical level.The fourth chapter is about the challenges which American new character education faces during the process of development.The rationality,the practice efficiency and the deficiencies of the new character education are analyzed in this chapter.In general,this thesis argues that the practice of American new character education in recent three decades is positive,which has already accumulated a lot of significant curriculum,programs as well as the education methods.All these achievements are closely related to high attention of the U.S.governments,society,as well as academic theories.However,we must have an objective view of the deficiencies of new American character education.For example,insufficient teacher training,lack of corresponding evaluation mechanism,moral indoctrination without concrete contexts are all very common.At the same time,the academic circles in the United States overemphasize the personal and schools’ responsibilities,but it ignores the influence of society and the federal government.

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  • 【网络出版投稿人】 华东师范大学
  • 【分类号】G416
  • 【下载频次】146
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