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基于FCI的力学概念相异构想案例研究

【作者】 樊丽

【导师】 贾艳;

【作者基本信息】 东北师范大学, 教育硕士(专业学位), 2018, 硕士

【摘要】 教育兴国已经成为全世界的共识,人才是当今世界国家立足之本。每个国家都十分重视基础科学研究,而作为科学学科的物理尤其充当了不可或缺的角色。无论是在高等院校中学者们的前沿研究,还是在初等教育甚至幼儿教育中对于学生的科学素养的培养,国家投入了大量的人力、物力、财力,可见当局者对于物理教育的重视程度。但科学研究表明:传统教育将学生在正式学习之前的状态认定为无知,因此需要教师将人类沉淀的生活智慧传递到学生手中的认知是错误的。学生是能动的主体,并不是完全对即将学习的知识一无所知。而物理学与生活紧密相联,物理现象更是在生活实践中被人们发现,因此,在生活中,学生已经对一些物理现象有了自己的主观判断,尽管这些认识鱼龙混杂,需要经过正规学习加以矫正,但是教育不能低估、否认学生的主观认识,而应该合理利用并极力扭转学生的错误认识。而这些存在于正式学习之前的错误认识,就称之为学生头脑内的相异构想。为调查学生头脑内的相异构想,本研究通过对文献的梳理,了解前人对于本课题的研究成果,具体总结了相异构想这一术语的提出,以及与之相关的容易混淆的术语,并对有关的术语进行语义辨析,从而提炼出本研究所使用的相异构想的具体概念内涵,明确概念之间的界定。在具体的调研阶段,结合实习所在学校实际情况,选取两个平行班级的全体学生作为研究对象,使用国际上通用的力学概念测试量表FCI,英文全称是Force Concept Inventory,经过数据的处理及分析,整理学生客观存在的关于牛顿力学相关概念的相异构想概念具体有哪些;在与被调研学生的授课教师的访谈中归纳学生产生相异构想的特点及原因,针对以上相异构想的成因,提出相应的教学建议,为扭转学生头脑内的相异构想贡献自己的绵薄之力。

【Abstract】 Education and rejuvenating the country have become the consensus of the whole world,and talents are the foundation of the nation in the world today. Each country attaches great importance to basic scientific research, and as a scientific discipline, physics plays an indispensable role. Whether it is the frontier research scholars in Institutions of higher learning, or even in preschool education in the elementary education for students’ scientific literacy training, the state has invested lots of manpower, material and financial resources, the authorities visible degree of importance for physical education. However, scientific research shows that the traditional education is to make students’ ignorance of the state before formal learning, and that it is wrong for teachers to transfer the knowledge of human life to the students. Students are dynamic subjects, not completely ignorant of what they are about to learn. But more physics is closely connected with life,physical phenomenon is derived from the practice of life, therefore, in life, students have some physical phenomena have their own subjective judgment, although the need to go through the formal study of understanding of dragons and fishes jumbled together, and corrected, but education can not be underestimated,denied the subjective understanding of the students, and should use force to reverse the students’ mistakes. These misconceptions, which exist before formal learning, are called"different ideas" in the minds of students.For the investigation of alternative conceptions in the minds of students,this study through literature review, understanding of the previous research results of this paper, the proposed the term alternative conception, and confusing terms associated with it,and discriminates the related terms, and the extract from specific concepts using the alternative conception the study of the. In the research phase of concrete,combined with the practice of the actual situation of the school, all students select two parallel classes as the research object,using the concept of mechanical test scale general international (Force Concept Inventory) or FCI, through the analysis on the data, finishing the objectively existing student alternative conceptions about the relationship between force and motion motion in the related concepts,and being in the understanding of students for the force and movement related concepts research students in the exchange, in which students have characteristics summary and alternative conception alternative frameworks of the crux of the problem, causes for the above alternative conception, to reverse the students’alternative framework in mind its own modest contribution.

【关键词】 概念教学相异构想FCI
【Key words】 pre conceptdifferent conceptionFCI

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  • 【网络出版投稿人】 东北师范大学
  • 【分类号】G633.7
  • 【下载频次】69
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