中国基础教育博硕士论文库

节点文献

高一物理教学中培养学生图形表征能力研究

【作者】 封英

【导师】 侯恕;

【作者基本信息】 东北师范大学, 教育硕士(专业学位), 2018, 硕士

【摘要】 从认知心理学视角来看,对于同一事物的表征,可以是文字表征、图形表征与符号表征,如果表征的方式不一样,那么大脑对其加工的过程也就不一样。与文字表征、符号表征相比,图形表征不仅形象直观,而且能够直接提供研究对象多层次的抽象信息。高中物理对学生的抽象思维能力要求比较高,而图形表征恰好可以在理解物理抽象知识方面起着重要作用。图形表征不仅与物理思维特点相匹配,而且可以表达物理学科内容。物理学科呈现出的特点也是很多问题凭借图形表征方式将会变得简单易懂。所以,对于物理学科而言,图形表征在很多方面都体现出区别于文字表征和符号表征的优越性。图形表征作为物理学习中一种重要的表征形式,兼具抽象思维与形象思维特征,它不但符合物理情境的需求,而且符合中学生的认知特点。学生在这方面表现出来的能力不同,可以间接反映学生的物理学习情况。基于以上认识,本研究对培养学生图形表征能力进行了理论与实践探索。本研究的图形表征形象主要针对的是示意图、函数图像、知识结构图三大类。通过阅读和整理已有的研究成果,形成图形表征能力文献研究综述。本研究将学生图形表征能力作为研究的重点,用认知心理学理论做支撑,探究学生解决物理问题时的过程,推测他们在问题解决过程中的思维进程与心理机制,并解释其中的相关现象。最后在理论研究的基础上,对培养学生图形表征能力进行教学实践探索,并提出培养学生图形表征能力的教学策略。

【Abstract】 According to the point of view of cognitive psychology,There are several ways to present one thing’, such as text representation and graphical representation and symbolic representation and so on. The different ways of representations decide the ways of human beings brains’ process. Compared with text representation and symbolic representation,graphical representation not only is intuitionistic but also provides multi-level abstract information of research objectives.The request of high school physics to the students’ abstract thinking ability is high.However, it is graphical representation that just plays an important role in the field of understanding physical abstract knowledge. Graphical representation not only matches with the physical thinking characteristics but also presents physical knowledge. What characteristics physics presents will be easy because of graphical representation. This, as for physics, graphical representation, in many respects, reflects the superiority of text representation and symbolic representation.Graphical representation is a significant representation form of physical learning.which has both image thinking and abstract thinking features both conforms to the requirements of physical situation and accords with the cognitive characteristics of middle school students.The ability of students in this area is different,which can indirectly reflect the students’ learning conditions of physics.Based on the above understanding, this study is about theory and the practice exploration on cultivating students’ capability of graphical representation. Images of the graphical representation in this paper mainly focus on such three major categories as motioned graphics,functional images and knowledge structure diagram.Through reading and sorting existing research achievements,graphical representation ability’s literature review is formed. This study choose students graphical representation ability as a research focus,supported by the theory of cognitive psychology, which explores the process of students’ solving physical problems to speculate the thinking process in the problem solving process and psychological mechanism and to explain the relative phenomenon. Finally, on the basis of theoretical research, there are teaching practical explorations to train the ability of graphic representation and some teaching strategies put forward to train students’ ability of graphic representation.

移动知网

全球学术快报

  • 【网络出版投稿人】 东北师范大学
  • 【分类号】G633.7
  • 【下载频次】82
节点文献中: