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美国早期教育教师专业学习共同体研究

【作者】 崔迪

【导师】 姚伟;

【作者基本信息】 东北师范大学, 教育学原理, 2018, 博士

【摘要】 在国际竞争日益激烈的21世纪,各国掀起了大范围的教育改革浪潮。提高教育质量是教育改革的关健,教师是教育活动的主要实施者,教师的专业化水平影响着教育改革的进程和效果。美国在提高教师质量方面的一系列导向明确的理念和政策,规范有力的举措,对我国师资队伍建设和教师教育改革具有重要的借鉴意义,尤其是在寻求教师专业发展的有效方式上,积极建立和发展了教师专业学习共同体。经过几十年的不断完善,美国早期教育教师专业学习共同体的发展趋于成熟,取得了显著的成效。本文基于对美国早期教育教师专业学习共同体的历史沿革、构成要素、实践特征及改进举措等方面的研究,结合我国的国情,提出我国幼儿教师专业发展路径可借鉴之处。本论文的基本内容如下:导论,从问题缘起出发,指出教师专业学习共同体成为世界各国教师教育改革的重要议题,并阐明了我国幼儿教师专业发展路径探索中的现实诉求。本论文在大量查阅教师专业学习共同体的相关资料基础上,对教师专业学习共同体和美国教师专业学习共同体等相关问题进行综述,包括内涵、特征、发展阶段、构建价值、构建途径、构建策略等等。同时还对教师专业发展的相关问题进行了文献综述,为本论文提供相应的理论支持。导论中还明晰了研究方法及研究意义。第一章,美国早期教育教师专业学习共同体的本体分析。明确教师专业学习、教师专业学习共同体、美国早期教育教师专业学习共同体的概念。分析了教师学习共同体的要素,包括共同的愿景与目标、合作性文化、集体性学习和分享个体实践。阐述了理论基础包括社会建构主义学习理论、学习型组织理论和成人学习理论,为本研究进行必要的理论铺垫,以期更清楚地解读美国早期教育教师专业学习共同体的实践特征。第二章,美国早期教育教师专业学习共同体的历史沿革。二战后到20世纪70年代美国教师专业学习共同体在教师专业化的进程中酝酿阶段。20世纪80年代-2000年,美国民众更加关心教师质量,在学习型组织理论被引入教育界后,教师专业学习共同体兴起。进入2000年以后,美国教师专业学习共同体快速发展,在解决教师孤立性教学,加强教师间的合作和分享方面取得了很多成绩。第三章,美国早期教育教师专业学习共同体的实践特征。在历经酝酿、兴起和新发展之后,美国早期教育教师专业学习共同体在实践中呈现了一些特征即以共同愿景和目标为核心;以合作式学习为主要方式;以多样的专业发展活动为载体,以领导力的支持与分享为条件;以评估工具与数据分析为保障。第四章,美国早期教育教师专业学习共同体的改进。美国早期教育教师专业学习共同体取得了一些成绩的同时,还存在一些问题,包括概念泛化导致实践效果不佳;合作时间的安排缺少合理性和个体实践的分享不足。在应对问题,寻求改进的过程中,美国早期教育教师专业学习共同体也呈现出新的发展趋势,包括建立专门性的机构协助建构;增强行政支持力度;借助新信息技术的助力。第五章,美国早期教育教师专业学习共同体对我国的借鉴。基于我国幼儿教师专业学习共同体的管理、活动展开和评价等方面的调查,提出一些存在的问题,包括行政权力集中;“硬造合作”导致合作肤浅化;评价制度有待完善等,并对原因进行了分析。在此基础上提出美国早期教育教师专业学习共同体对我国的借鉴:转换幼儿教师专业学习共同体管理者的角色,提高为教师服务的意识;建设幼儿教师专业学习共同体平等自由的合作文化;注重激发幼儿教师的内在发展动力;运用新信息技术,开放幼儿教师专业学习共同体的空间。

【Abstract】 In the increasingly fierce international competition in the twenty-first century,countries have set of fawave of educational reforms.To improve the quality of education is the crucial point in educational reforms,and teachers are the major executors in educational activities,so the teachers’ professional development is the decisive factor affecting the quality of education,which is closely related to the success of educational reforms.The systematic ideas,policies and specific measures taken by the USA to improve the quality of teachers have offered important insights for the construction of teaching staff in China and the reform of teachers’ education,especially in the effective way for teacher professional development,and actively establishing and improving the professional learning community.After decades of continuous improvement,the development of the professional learning community of early childhood education in the USA tends to mature,and has achieved remarkable results.Based on the research on the history,elements,features and improvement measures of professional learning community of early childhood education in the USA,and combined with China’s national conditions,this paper put forward the path of professional development of kindergarten teachers in China.The main contents of this paper are as follows:Introduction,starting from the problems cause,points out that the professional learning community has become an important issue in the reform of teacher education in the world.This paper is based on lots of relevant studies on the professional learning community,and summarized the problems related to the professional learning community and the professional learning community in the USA,including the connotation,characteristics,developmental stages,construction of value and the construction strategies and so on.At the same time,it also makes a literature review on the issues related to the professional development of teachers.In the introduction,the research methods and significance are also clarified.The first chapter is the evolution of the professional learning community of early childhood education in the USA.After defining the concept of teachers’professional learning,teachers’ professional learning community and the professional learning community of early childhood education,this paper analyzes the elements of the professional learning community,including shared vision and goals,cooperative culture,collective learning and sharing of individual practice.It also describes the theoretical basis of social constructivist learning theory,learning organization theory and adult learning theory.This study carried out the necessary theoretical basis,in order to better interpret the practical characteristics of professional learning community of early childhood education in the USA.The second chapter is about the historical evolution of the professional learning community of early childhood education teachers in the USA.After the Second World War,in 1970s,professional learning community in the USA has been in the process of teacher professionalization.From 1980s to 2000,the American people are more concerned about the quality of teachers,and learning organization theory was introduced into the edu cation sector,leading to the rise of the professional learning community.After entering the 2000,the rapid development of the professional learning community in the United States has made a lot of achievements in solving the problem of teachers’ isolated teaching and streng thening the cooperation and sharing among teachers.The third chapter is about the practical characteristics of professional learning community of early childhood education in the USA.After brewing,the rise and development,professional learning community of Early childhood Education in the USA has shown some characteristics in practice:with shared vision and goals as the core;with cooperative learning as the main form;with the variety of professional development activities as the carrier;with supportive and shared leadership as the conditions,and with assessment tools and data analysis as the weapons.The fourth chapter is about the improvement of the professional learning community of early childhood education in the USA.The professional learning community of early childhood education in the USA has made some achievements,there are still some problems,including the concept of gene ralization leads to ineffective practice;cooperation arrangements lack of rationality and Inadequate sharing of individual practice.In response to the problem,the attempt to improve the process of the professional learning community of early childhood education is also showing a new trend of development,including the establishment of specialized institutions to assist the construction;the strengthening of administrative support;and with the help of new information technology.The fifth chapter,analyzed the professional learning community of early childhood education in the USA for our reference.Based on the survey of management,and evaluation of the activities of preschool teachers’ professional learning community,points out the problems:the administrative power concentration;"contrived collegiality" lead to a superficial cooperation;evaluation system needs to be improved,and the reasons were analy zed.Based on the experience of the professional learning comm unity of early childhood education in the USA,we concluded the insights for China:convert preschool teachers’ role in management of the professional learning community,and improve the consciousness of service in teachers;construct an equal and free environment for preschool teachers’ professional learning community;focus on internal development motivation of preschool teachers;the use of new information technology,open the space for preschool teach ers’professional learning community.

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  • 【网络出版投稿人】 东北师范大学
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