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教师是怎样理解课程的? ——青海省某县九位教师课程理解的叙事探究

【作者】 宋维玉

【导师】 秦玉友;

【作者基本信息】 东北师范大学, 课程与教学论, 2018, 博士

【副题名】青海省某县九位教师课程理解的叙事探究

【摘要】 课程是学校教育活动的核心要素,也是教育改革持续关注的重要内容。新世纪以来全国范围内推行的课程改革行动在相关主体中引发了普遍的讨论和争议,争议的根源在于不同主体间的课程理解是多元的,有时甚至存在冲突。这种“多元”状态凸显了在当下的教育理论与实践研究中,“怎样理解课程”这一课程论研究的经典问题依然值得关注。而教师的课程理解问题则因为课程改革政策的推行和成效问题成为学界和改革者关注的核心。教师的课程理解融于教师个性化的教育实践之中,并且对课程、教师、学生以及课程情境等课程要素的互动过程和各自发展有着重要影响,研究教师的课程理解对于了解教师的课程实践和当前的教育问题具有重要参考价值。梳理国内已有的教师课程理解研究文献发现,课程理解的相关研究以理论研究居多,而针对课程理解的实证研究大都站在科学主义课程观的立场关注教师课程理解的“适切性”问题,而基于教师发展取向的,站在教师立场来探究教师课程理解的缔造、发展变化过程及其意义的成果相对较少。在这样的研究背景下,本研究确立了“教师是如何理解课程并在课程理解的框架内行动的”这一研究主题,并形成了以下基本研究问题:教师拥有什么样的课程理解?它们是怎么形成和发展的?教师的课程理解怎样影响着课程、教师、学生以及课程情境等课程要素的互动及发展?教师的课程理解对于教育实践的改进具有怎样的启示?研究以青海省某县九位初中教师为样本,通过田野调查和关键事件访谈获得了教师课程理解的重要经历及其细节,并就浓缩了教师课程理解和解释的关键事件进行研究,以此探究教师是如何看待课程并且建构自己的课程实践及其意义的。基于多轮访谈和对话,研究者和教师不断回到教师课程经历的基本事实和情境之中获知了教师“在场”的课程理解,并且在对比九位教师理解课程的过程及各自课程理解的异同中,持续、开放地与教师共同解读教师课程实践及其意义并获得了教师的课程理解。经由叙事探究的过程和范式,研究一方面呈现了教师如何通过行动、理解和解释赋予自己的课程实践以意义,另一方面也通过进一步“澄清”教师的叙述和解释来呈现了教师课程理解中所蕴含的课程经验、课程行动逻辑以及课程哲学。此外,通过解读教师的课程理解中同时表现出的某种连续性和非连续性(“冲突”),研究揭示了教师课程理解的复杂性、开放性和可干预性。通过对教师课程理解形成和演变过程的探究,形成了以下关于教师经验建构课程理解的主要认识:经验是教师产生多元课程理解的重要原因,并且教师课程理解的发展和转变总是基于某种“效果历史”的影响不断固化或转变;教师的课程理解与课程行动相互建构,影响这一建构过程的重要因素包含在实践疑难和关键事件之中,其中实践疑难对推动教师的课程理解发展具有重要价值,而关键事件的发生及其研究是干预教师课程理解形成和发展的有效手段;教师的课程理解是一个持续的、不断开放的过程;教师的课程理解呈现出情境化、个体化差异。回归教育发展和改革的成效及其相关问题反思,本研究认为教师的经验和理解不仅不能被排除在课程和改革之外,而是应该在受到正视的基础上进一步得到“科学地干预”和推进。

【Abstract】 Curriculum is the core of school education,and the continuing focus of educational reform.Since the new century,the nationwide implementation of the action in education and curriculum reform has triggered a widespread debate and controversy in relevant subjects.The source of this controversy is that the curriculum understanding among different subjects is multiple and even conflicting.This multivariate state highlights the classic question of “how to understand the curriculum”,which is still worthy of attention in the research of educational theory and practice.Then,the teachers’ curriculum understanding is being focus as the core of weather the curriculum reform successful or not.The teachers’ curriculum understanding is running through their personal curriculum practice,which have deep impact on curriculum,teachers,students and curriculum situation,so the study of teachers’ curriculum understanding have important reference value in knowing the situation of current education problem.We found most researches in the curriculum understanding were theoretical and the empirical researches to the curriculum understanding were about the reform and development of curriculum mostly which focused the “appropriate” problem of curriculum understanding of teachers from the scientific curriculum view.The results which explored the creation,the development and the significance of practice based on the development orientation of teachers were relatively few.Based on the above background,this study will explore “how teachers understanding the curriculum and act within the framework of curriculum understanding” and form the following basic research questions:What kind of curriculum understanding does the teacher have? How does they exist and changed ? What is the significance of curriculum understanding for the curriculum,teachers,students and curriculum situation development and the improvement ?In this study,we obtained important experience about 9 teachers’ life history and practice of curriculum by field investigation and critical incident interviews from middle schools in a county of Qinghai Province,explored the critical incidents which condensed the teachers’ understanding and explain.Through the process of narrative inquiry,the researcher and the teachers go back to basic facts and situations to get the teachers’ curriculum understanding in “the moment”.This study revealed how teachers can make the significance of their own curriculum practice by action,understanding and explaining,and also present the curriculum experience,curriculum practical logic and curriculum philosophy which included in teachers’ curriculum understanding by “clarify ” teacher’s description and explanation.Besides,by unscramble some continuity and non continuity("conflict")which presented in the understanding of curriculum of teachers,the study revealed the complexity,open and interventional of teachers’ curriculum understanding.By the inquiry of teachers’ curriculum understanding,the study formed the general knowledge of how constructing curriculum understanding of teachers:the experiences are the main cause of multiple curriculum understanding,and the teachers’ curriculum understanding and behavior are always solidified and changed based on the influence of some "effect history".Teachers’ curriculum understanding and curriculum action are mutually constructed,the factors which influence this process are include in practice difficult and critical incidents,practice difficult has important value for promoting teacher’ curriculum understanding,and critical incident is effective method for intervene teacher’ curriculum understanding to formation and development.Teachers’ curriculum understanding is a continuous and open process;teachers’ curriculum understanding shows contextual and individual differences.Back to rethinking the problem of education development and reform,it is very important to awareness that teacher’s experiences and understanding not only can not be excluded in curriculum and reform,but also should be face up to promoting and “intervened scientifically”.

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