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美国基于“共同核心标准”的新一代评价体系研究

【作者】 栾慧敏

【导师】 刘学智;

【作者基本信息】 东北师范大学, 比较教育学, 2018, 博士

【摘要】 20世纪90年代初,美国掀起了“基于标准的教育改革”浪潮。2001年颁布的《不让一个孩子掉队法案》(NCLB)提出将对不能达到标准的学校实行严格的惩罚措施。美国各州为了免受处罚,纷纷降低州标准以使学生成绩“达标”。在此背景下,2010年,美国颁布了“共同核心标准”,要求“全美学生在进入大学之前,在各年级的学习均接受相同的教育标准”,标志着美国开始采用和实施全国性统一的课程标准。目前,美国的42个州以及哥伦比亚特区采纳了这一标准。为适应各州和地区对与“共同核心标准”相一致的评价改革的需求,美国教育部通过“力争上游评价项目”资助两个评价联盟——“为大学与就业做准备评价联盟”(PARCC)和“更智能平衡评估联盟”(SBAC)——研制与“共同核心标准”相一致的评价体系,亦称为新一代评价体系。目前,PARCC联盟和SBAC联盟所研发的英语和数学评价体系已在美国的多个州与地区正式实施。2001年我国义务教育课程改革全面启动以来,对于教育质量的要求不断提升,如何借鉴他国经验建立科学的基于标准的学业评价体系引起关注。国家相继出台了一系列文件,强调建立基于标准的学业评价体系以提升基础教育质量的重要性和必要性。在此背景下,研究美国基于“共同核心标准”的新一代评价体系,探讨美国如何开发、如何实施新一代评价体系,这对我国建立、实施基于标准的学业评价体系具有很好的借鉴意义。本论文包括引言在内共分为八个部分。第一部分为引言部分,主要对论文的选题缘由、核心概念、研究内容框架以及研究方法等进行了界定,并对国内外的相关研究进行了综述。第一章在阐释公共政策过程理论的基础上,分析了应用政策阶段论和多源流理论进行美国新一代评价体系研究的适用性。第二章应用多源流理论从问题源流、政治源流以及政策源流三个方面分析了美国启动新一代评价体系政策的动因。第三章主要分析了美国如何研制新一代评价体系,包括“力争上游评价项目”的筹划与实施,以及新一代评价体系研制的主体、方法和主要程序;阐释了美国新一代评价体系的内容框架,包括评价的目标、评价的内容、评价体系的结构、评价的工具、评价结果的报告,并在此基础上比较了PARCC评价体系与SBAC评价体系的异同。第四章主要分析了新一代评价体系在美国各州的采纳情况。为了更清晰的描述州采纳新一代评价体系的状况,本章选取了马萨诸塞州和加利福尼亚州为个案进行具体分析。第五章主要分析了美国新一代评价体系的实施状况,概述了美国新一代评价体系实地测验和正式实施的情况,详述了新一代评价体系的实施主体和实施方式,并以加利福尼亚州为例具体分析了新一代评价体系在州层面实施的状况。第六章以有关研究结论以及统计数据为依据考察了美国新一代评价体系实施的效果,可以发现新一代评价体系的实施取得了一定的积极效果,同时实施过程中存在着一些问题与不足。第七章结合前文的研究总结了美国新一代评价体体系政策的主要特征,并在此基础上提出美国新一代评价体系政策给我国建立、实施基于标准的学业评价体系的有益启示。

【Abstract】 Since the 1990 s,Standards-based reforms have become widespread across the United States.Those states who reduced the educational standards for avoiding the discipline of The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 in the United States.For above reasons,National Governors Association and The Council of Chief State School Officers claimed: to enforce the Common Core State Standards for K-12 students in June 2,2010,in order to insure the competitiveness of the USA,which lays a solid foundation for each student in the future.Forty-two states,the District of Columbia,four territories,and the Department of Defense Education Activity have adopted the Common Core State Standards.On September 2,2010,due to the demands of promoting the implementation of the Common Core State Standards,the U.S.Department of Education announced the winners of the $350 million Race to the Top Comprehensive Assessment Systems Competition: the Partnership for the Assessment of Readiness for College and Careers(PARCC)and the SMARTER Balanced Assessment Consortium(SBAC).The task of PARCC and SBAC is to develop and implement tests aligned to the Common Core State Standards which is called Next Generation Assessment Systems.Next Generation Assessment Systems has managed to move to full implementation in the United States.In 2001,China Started the new curriculum reform.People has raised higher requirements of the quality education,So how to establish standard-based student achievement assessment on the basic of the introduction of other countries experience is cause for concern in China.In this context,studying the Next Generation Assessment Systems which is base Common Core State Standards,and discussing how to develop and implement the Next Generation Assessment Systems could offers some valuable advice on our academic assessment reform.The paper is divided into eight parts: The first part is introduction of this paper,which describes the reasons for selecting this topic,key concept,main content,and reviews related literatures.Chapter 1 mainly analyzes the applicability of the multiple-streams theory and the theory of policy process on the basis of a comprehensive interpretation of policy process theories.This chapter applies the multiple-streams theory which includes problems stream,policy stream and political stream to explores the real motivation of developing the Next Generation Assessment Systems.Chapter 2 mainly illustrates the goals and the content framework of assessment system.The content framework of PARCC assessment system includes binary assessment structure;English and math cored subject assessment;the partnership resource center;text complexity diagnostic;tool options for assessment and so on.Chapter 3 mainly analyses how to develop the the Next Generation Assessment Systems,including Race to the Top Assessment Program planning and implementation,the developers of Next Generation Assessment Systems,the approach and procedure of assessment development.This chapter also illustrates the content framework of Next Generation Assessment Systems.The content framework of Next Generation Assessment Systems includes the goal,content,tools of assessment,the structure of assessment system and the reporting of assessment results.On this basis,this thesis compares PARCC assessment system and SBAC assessment system,summarizes main features of Next Generation Assessment Systems.Chapter 4 mainly analyses the adopting of Next Generation Assessment Systems.In order to describe the adopting of Next Generation Assessment Systems as clearly as possible,this part chooses Massachusetts and California as cases.Chapter 5 mainly analyses the implementation of Next Generation Assessment Systems.The paper summarizes the field test and full implementation of Next Generation Assessment Systems.Chapter 6 investigates the implementation effect of Next Generation Assessment Systems based on the relevant research conclusions and statistics,it can be found that the implementation of Next Generation Assessment Systems played a positive role.However,the Next Generation Assessment Systems implementation also has some problems and deficiencies.Chapter 7 mainly Synthesizes and summarizes main features of Next Generation Assessment Systems.It also offers some valuable advice on the study of our academic assessment system.

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  • 【网络出版投稿人】 东北师范大学
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