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新中国幼儿园艺术教育价值取向的嬗变与反思(1949-2012)

【作者】 李欢

【导师】 王小英;

【作者基本信息】 东北师范大学, 教育史, 2018, 博士

【摘要】 艺术是人类精神的本体象征,艺术揭示世界和人生的双重奥秘,并通过对感性生命的揭示,展示有限生命获得无限精神超越的自由境界。艺术活动是精神唤醒、生命升腾的展开形式,是对心灵的追问与对答过程。21世纪的艺术光环五彩斑斓,越来越多的目光注意到艺术教育,艺术教育吸引了人们的强烈关注。回溯新中国的学前艺术教育,取得了举世瞩目的成就,建国后,中国幼儿艺术教育事业在传统教育向现代教育的变革中,以中国传统教育文化和老解放区的幼教经验为基础,向苏联学习,逐步走向了科学、健康的发展之路。但是,我们也要看到,新中国的幼儿园艺术教育建设,经历了政权交替、教育革命,特别是经历了“文化大革命”、改革开放和文化热潮,人们在物质与精神追求、行为准则判定、核心价值取向等方面发生转变,新旧观念不断激烈碰撞,使我国发展中的幼儿园艺术教育面临着前所未有的困惑和考验。本研究按时间顺序梳理了新中国在幼儿园艺术教育发展进程中不同时期的价值取向、历史流变趋势,以及造成如此流变的影响因素,根据新中国幼儿园艺术教育价值取向发生变革的时间顺序,论述了艺术教育启蒙时期的幼儿园艺术教育价值取向(1949—1956)、艺术教育探索时期的幼儿园艺术教育价值取向(1957—1965)、文化大革命时期、艺术教育恢复时期的幼儿园艺术教育价值取向(1977—1990)、艺术教育发展时期的幼儿园艺术教育价值取向(1991—2001)、艺术教育繁荣时期的幼儿园艺术教育价值取向(2002—2012),通过对新中国成立后的幼儿园艺术教育历史的探究,追寻不同时期对于儿童艺术教育的价值追求;厘清新中国幼儿园艺术教育的事实认识和价值认识;分析和研究新中国学前教育现代化进程中具有代表性的幼儿园艺术教育价值取向;新中国幼儿园艺术教育价值取向的嬗变与走向;新中国幼儿教育现代化进程中幼儿园艺术教育价值取向的影响因素,以期为构建我国幼儿园艺术教育价值体系提供参考依据。通过对我国幼儿教育现代化进程中艺术教育价值取向的流变趋势与影响因素的探讨,总结新中国幼儿园艺术教育价值取向的嬗变特点,并且在反思的基础上,为我国当前幼儿园艺术教育课程改革进行价值判断和选择提供依据;为构建适合我国国情的、符合我国幼儿园艺术教育现实需要的价值体系,提出改革设想;通过对各个时期的相关资料进行分析,反思新中国幼儿园艺术教育历史嬗变的内在规律和本质特征,提出正确认识传统文化与新文化在幼儿园艺术教育价值中的关系;正确处理主流价值观与个性价值诉求的关系;认真思考外来教育理论与本土艺术实践的适切性;坚持以人文精神实现为幼儿园艺术教育的终极价值追求。艺术活动是人类寻找精神家园的本真活动,从外在世界的僵化和变形中解放出来,接受内心对真实价值的追问,成为坚实地脚踏在大地上的存在的基石。

【Abstract】 Art is the body symbol of human spirit and reveals the double mysteries of world and life,also expressing the freedom for a limited life to obtain infinite spirit by revealing sensual life.An artistic activity is the expanded form of spiritual arousal and life soar,and the course of questions and answers to soul.The glory of art in 21 st century is colorful,more and more attentions are paid to art education,and art education attracts intensive concerns from people.Looking back,the preschool art education of New China has achieved a remarkable success.After the foundation of China,evolving from traditional education to modern education,based on traditional Chinese educational culture and the preschool education experience of old liberated areas,Chinese preschool art education learns from the Soviet Union and walks a scientific and healthy development road gradually.However,we need to see that the construction of the preschool art education of New China experienced regime change,education revolution,especially “Great Cultural Revolution”,the reform and opening-up and cultural upsurge,people have changed in the aspects of material and spiritual pursuits,criteria of conduits,core value orientation,etc.,new and old ideas conflict each other continuously,and thus,the developing art education of kindergarten in China is facing unprecedented confusions and challenges.In this study,the value orientations and historical trends of the kindergarten art education of New China in different development periods and the influencing factors of these historical trends are arranged in the order of time.In accordance with the time order by which the value orientations of kindergarten art education of New China changed,the value orientation of the kindergarten art education at the enlightenment period of art education(1949-1956),the value orientation of the kindergarten art education at the exploring period of art education(1957-1965),the value orientation of the kindergarten art education at “Great Cultural Revolution” period and the recovery period of art education(1977-1990),the value orientation of the kindergarten art education at the development period of art education(1991-2001)and the value orientation of the kindergarten art education at the prosperous period of art education(2002-2012)have been discussed.By exploring the histories of the kindergarten art education after the foundation of China,the value pursuits of the child art education at different periods have been explored;the facts and values of the kindergarten art education of New China have been learned,the typical value orientations of the kindergarten art education in the modernization of Chinese preschool education,the evolution and trends of the value orientations of the kindergarten art education of New China and the influencing factors thereof in the modernization process of New China kindergarten education have been analyzed and studied,which provides reference and evidence for building the value system of the kindergarten art education in China.By discussing the trends and influencing factors of the value orientations of art education in the modernization process of the kindergarten education in New China,the evolution characteristics of the value orientations of the kindergarten art education in New China are summarized,which provides evidence for judging and selecting values of the current reform on the kindergarten art education courses in China on the basis of reflection.Reformative ideas have been proposed for building the value system that conforms to Chinese situations and meets the actual needs of Chinese kindergarten art education.By analyzing the related data in different periods,the inherent laws and essential features in the historical evolutions of the kindergarten art education in New China are reflected,and relations of traditional culture and new culture in the kindergarten art education values shall be understood correctly.The relations between mainstream values and individual values shall be handled correctly.The applicableness of foreign educational theories to domestic artistic practices shall be considered carefully,and the ultimate value pursuits of the kindergarten art education shall be realized by humanistic spirit.An artistic activity is the natural activity for humans to search spiritual homeland,to get liberated from external rigidity and deformation,to accept hearty inquiry to true values,and to become an existing footstone that steps firmly upon the land.

【关键词】 幼儿园艺术教育价值取向嬗变
【Key words】 kindergartenart educationvalue orientationevolution

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  • 【网络出版投稿人】 东北师范大学
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