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专业共同体中的教师知识学习研究

【作者】 张莉

【导师】 马云鹏;

【作者基本信息】 东北师范大学, 课程与教学论, 2018, 博士

【摘要】 在课程改革的背景下,教师作为课程实施的关键力量,其能力和水平直接影响课程改革的实施水平。为了支持教师的学习和发展,强调专业引领、同伴互助、自我反思的专业共同体受到关注。但是学界对专业共同体的价值存在不同的观点,这些观点一方面认为共同体通过引导教师积极学习和反思,提升教师的职业认同和责任感、提升教师的专业知识和能力。另一方面则认为并不是所有共同体都关注变革并实现教师发展,他们有可能是在强化传统并“延续不合格的实践”。而已有相关研究重点关注共同体本身的目标导向、运行机制、活动方式,对共同体中教师的学习及其成效缺乏关注,难以解释不同类型共同体对教师专业发展的价值问题。因此,研究选择从教师知识学习的视角,探讨不同类型专业共同体中教师的学习和知识发展情况,为共同体的建构、活动组织和教师学习提供相关的依据和参考。本研究首先依据共同体的功能定位将实践中的教师共同体划分为教学改进型共同体、教师发展型共同体和教学研究型共同体三类,并根据不同共同体的特征对可能的共同体个案进行分析,最终选择6个共同体作为个案进行研究。为了分析共同体运行和教师的参与情况,研究基于社会建构主义的“学习即实践参与”的观点,一方面,选择个案共同体所属组织的领导者、共同体领导者和部分教师进行深入访谈,并收集相关文本资料。另一方面,以个案共同体的任务和活动为主要关注点,分析教师在活动中的参与情况,关注的内容,及其观点、行为的变化,以分析教师在共同体中的知识学习。研究有如下发现:在共同体的运行上,教学改进型共同体是学校“自上而下”发起的,成员为学科组或教研组教师。在共同体的活动中,教师们在行政规定下交流“教”的经验。教师发展型共同体也是行政部门发起的,旨在推进课程改革,共同体由专业人员领导,成员跨越组织边界,成员基于物化的学习资源和对个人和团队成果的分享学习。教学研究型共同体以探索特定教育理念及其实践为目标,它的发起表现为行政部门号召与成员主动申请相结合,成员来源不定,以系统的团队行动研究为主要活动方式。在不同类型共同体中教师学习的知识类型分布上,教学改进型共同体中教师所学习的知识以学科教学法知识、教育基本理论知识和教育环境知识为主。教师发展型共同体中教师所学习的知识以学科知识、教育基本理论知识和课程知识为主。教学研究型共同体中教师所学习的知识以学科教学知识、教育基本理论知识和课程知识为主。在对教育基本理论知识的学习中,三类共同体共同都关注学生及其学习的知识和教学基本理论知识。教学改进型共同体和教学研究型共同体共同关注课堂管理的理论与实践方面的知识。教育目的与价值的知识只有教师发展型共同体关注,而教育评价的知识只有教学研究型共同体关注。在学习方式上,教学改进型共同体和教学研究型共同体强调基于教学实践及其反思学习策略性知识,教师发展型共同体更为强调通过讲座和课例解析从理念层面进行介绍。在对学科教学知识的学习中,学科知识及其教学、学生学习的知识及其教学是教学改进型共同体和教学研究型共同体共同关注的内容。学科教学定位只有教学研究型共同体关注,特定主题和内容的教学策略设计不是这两类共同体所学习的主要内容。在学习过程中,两类共同体都强调分析学科知识和学生学习以确定内容、设计教学任务和教学策略。但是教学研究型共同体的相关分析更为系统。在课程知识的学习中,学科课程知识是教师发展型共同体和教学研究型共同体都关注的内容。一般课程知识是教师发展型共同体关注的内容,而课程开发与实践的知识是教学研究型共同体关注的内容。在学习方式上,教师发展型共同体中的学习方式以讲座和专题研讨为主,而教学研究型共同体则通过设置具体的研究任务学习。教学改进型共同体中教师所学习的教育环境知识包括:一是班级学生与家长的基本情况及其相处方式,二是学校层面对于教育教学的定位与要求,三是教师团队中蕴含的资源和群体亚文化。同时,教师主要是通过日常交流和实践而学习。教师发展型共同体中教师对学科知识的学习在内容上关注到学科本质,学科内容知识,以及特定内容的内涵和结构。学习主要通过讲座、专题研究和课例展示与研读展开。在学习类型上,教学改进型共同体中的教师学习类型主要是“讨论与协商型学习”和“实践与反思型学习”,教师发展型共同体中的教师学习类型主要是“观摩与反思型学习”和“研究与展示型学习”,教学研究型共同体中的教师学习类型主要是“探究与实验型学习”。同时,“讨论与协商型学习”、“观摩与反思型学习”、“研究与展示型学习”同属于“信息分享型学习”,“实践与反思型学习”和“探究与实验型学习”同属于“知识建构型学习”。专业共同体中影响教师学习的因素在个人层面包括教师的参与动机,对共同体的价值定位,以及在共同体中的学习参与。在在共同体层面包括共同体领导者的作用,共同体的活动设计与组织,以及共同体的学习资源。在外部环境因素包括组织文化与价值取向、组织机构的政策支持,以及组织机构的服务支持。这些因素相互作用,共同影响教师学习。

【Abstract】 In the context of curriculum reform,teachers as a key force in the curriculum implementation,its ability and level directly impact the implementation of curriculum reform.In order to support teachers’ study and development,Professional Learning Community is widely concerned for its’ emphasis on professional leadership,peer help,self-reflection.However,there are different views on the value of the professional community.On the one hand,the view holds that the community can improve teachers’ professional knowledge and ability by guiding them to actively study and reflect,to enhance teachers’ professional identity and sense of responsibility.On the other hand,they think it is not that all communities are concerned about change and achieve teacher development.They may be strengthening traditions and‘continuing unqualified practices’.For the related research concerned with the goal orientation,operation mechanism and activity mode of the community,and there is a lack of concern about the learning and effectiveness of teachers in the community,so it is difficult to explain the value of different types of community on teachers’ professional development.Therefore,this research explores teachers learning and knowledge development in different types of professional learning community from the perspective of teacher knowledge learning.And provide the relevant basis and reference for the construction of the community,the organization of activities and teacher learning.In this study,the main teacher community is divided into three categories: Teaching Improvement Community,Teacher Development Community and Teaching and Research Community.And the analysis of possible community cases is carried out according to the characteristics of communities.Finally,six communities are selected as the study case.In order to analyze the operation of the community and the participation of teachers,the study chooses the organization leaders,community leaders and some teachers to conduct in-depth interviews in each type of community,and collect relevant text data.This paper focuses on the view of “learning as practical participation” of social constructivism,and analyzes the teachers’ participation,the content they learn,the changes of their views and behavior in the activities,then analyze teachers’ knowledge learning in the community.The study found that:In the operation of the community,Teaching Improvement Community is the school top-down initiated,members are the discipline group or teaching and research group teachers.Teachers exchange their teaching experience under the administrative provisions.The TeacherImprovement Community is also initiated by the administration to promote the curriculum reform.Community practice is led by professionals,members are cross the organizational boundaries and they learn based on the materialized learning resources and the sharing of individual and team works.Teaching and Research Community is to explore the specific educational philosophy and its practice,its initiated for the administration support and members’ apply,members from the variable source,and the team research is the main activity.Teaching Improvement Community mainly focuses on Pedagogical Content Knowledge,Educational Theory,and Knowledge of Educational Context.Teacher Improvement Community mainly focuses on Subject Matter Knowledge,Educational Theory,and Curriculum knowledge.Teaching and Research Community mainly focuses on Subject Matter Knowledge,Educational Theory,and Curriculum knowledge.In the learning of Educational Theory,the three types of communities are concerned with the Knowledge of Learners and Its’ Learning.Teaching Improvement Community and Teaching and Research Community common concern classroom management theory and its’ practice.Teacher Improvement Community concern the knowledge of educational purpose and values.Teaching and Research Community concern the knowledge of educational evaluation.In the way of learning,Teaching Improvement Community and Teaching and Research Community emphasize the teaching practice and its reflection.The Teacher Improvement Community introduce the related concept through lectures and class example analysis.In the learning of Subject Matter Knowledge,Teaching Improvement Community and Teaching and Research Community common concern the subject content and its’ teaching,learners and its’ learning.Teaching and Research Community concern the goals and values of subject teaching.In the way of learning,two types of community emphasize the analysis of the subject matter and learners’ learning to choose the content,design teaching tasks and teaching strategies.And the analysis in Teaching and Research Community is more systematically.In the learning of Curriculum Knowledge,Teacher Improvement Community and Teaching and Research Community common concern the subject curriculum knowledge.Teacher Improvement Community concern general curriculum knowledge.Teaching and Research Community concern the knowledge of curriculum development and implementation.In the way of learning,Teacher Improvement Community mainly use the lectures and workshops,and Teaching and Research Community is set specific research tasks to study.The Knowledge of Educational Context studied by teachers in the Teaching Improvement Community includes: the basic situation of class students and parents and the way of getting along with them,the second is the orientation and requirements of education and teaching at the school level,the third is the resources and group subculture.Teacherslearn it mainly through daily communication and practice.Teachers in the Teacher Improvement Community learn the Subject Matter Knowledge,they concerned about the discipline essence,subject content,as well as the connotation and structure of the specific content.This kind of knowledge is learned through lectures,special studies and class example and its’ analysis.The type of teacher learning in the Teaching Improvement Community is ‘discussion and negotiation learning’ and ‘practice and reflective learning’.The Teacher Improvement Community is ‘observation and reflection learning’ and ‘study and sharing learning’.Teaching and Research Community is ‘inquiry and experimental learning’.At the same time,‘discussion and negotiation learning’,‘observation and reflection learning’ and ‘study and sharing learning’ belong to the ‘information sharing learning’,‘practice and reflective learning’ and ‘inquiry and experimental learning’ belong to ‘knowledge-construct learning’.The factors influencing teachers’ learning at the individual level include the teachers’ motivation,their evaluation of the community,and their participation in the community.At the community level,include the role of community leaders,the design and organization of the community activities,and community learning resources.At the external environment factors level,include organizational culture and value orientation,the organization’s policy support,and the organization’s service support.These factors interact and influences teacher learning.

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  • 【网络出版投稿人】 东北师范大学
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