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大城市义务教育资源承载能力指标体系建构及应用研究

【作者】 丁学森

【导师】 邬志辉;

【作者基本信息】 东北师范大学, 农村教育, 2018, 博士

【摘要】 未来十五年我国将有近3亿人口约3000万左右的义务教育学生由农村移居到城镇。大城市作为流动人口的主要聚集区域,其义务教育资源承载能力将面临严峻挑战。近年来,学术界对城市随迁子女义务教育问题多有研究,但多是基于随迁子女视角的理论与实证分析,鲜有从城市角度的实证研究。因此,从分析大城市义务教育资源数量与结构的供需矛盾入手,科学测算大城市义务教育资源承载能力,对合理规划、布局和配置大城市义务教育资源以应对学龄人口增长有重要意义。我们认为,流动人口是在教育资源“推力”与“拉力”作用下,基于对教育的预期成本-收益计算来做出是否随带子女一起流动决策的。流入地城市在政府偏好影响下,往往对随迁子女义务教育公共服务需求重视不足。公办优质义务教育是一种相对稀缺的、流动的、不均衡的基本公共服务资源;配置义务教育资源的实质是基于价值规约解决教育资源供需矛盾的行为与过程。大城市义务教育资源承载能力研究是一个涉及多个影响因子、需要多方主体协同的系统工程。当前,大城市义务教育资源的供需矛盾呈现出城市类型集中和供需压力嵌入等特点。通过对我国区域城镇化发展趋势及大城市人口聚集特点的数据分析,发现超大和特大城市在校生规模剧增、中小学校近郊化明显、学龄人口规模差异突出。以大城市发展模式与人口集聚矛盾分析模型为基础,对城市“抄近路”式发展与规模扩张冲动而忽视城市增加常住人口公共服务需求进行了归因分析,证明了大城市教育资源承载压力不单纯是学龄人口聚集的结果,而是学龄人口高流动性和异质性紧密嵌入大城市教育结构和社会结构的结果。基于系统论观点建立了大城市义务教育资源承载能力人口、教育、社会、资源四要素PRES理论分析模型,阐明了大城市义务教育资源承载能力系统性、条件约束性、差异性、时空性等特点,“可持续承载”与“有质量承载”两维价值坐标,以及协调教育内外部价值差异和认识、联动教育资源系统内外要素共同改进义务教育资源配置,改善和提升教育资源系统供容能力和支撑能力的理论结构。在此基础上,建构了背景领域(人口、经济投入、城市空间)、输入领域(人力、物力、财力资源)、输出领域(学校、学生)三维指标体系,阐释了指标间的结构关系与具体指涉。区域不同单位间教育资源承载能力的不平衡、教育资源承载压力嵌入在不同类型学校之中是大城市义务教育资源供需矛盾的总因。通过对东莞市中观、微观全样本数据分析,发现具有先发优势区域的义务教育资源承载能力相对更高,更容易具有较高的义务教育资源承载“条件”,也更能吸引学龄人口的大量聚集,而普通公办校、高端民办校、普通民办校三者之间的教育资源承载能力则呈降序排列。因此,针对不同类型大城市要因地制宜加强分类指导工作,对接城市学位预警与流动人口信息管理、加大财政转移支付、增加学位资源供给、探索教师管理机制改革、提升民办学校教育质量。

【Abstract】 The next fifteen years,China will have nearly 300 million people about 30 million compulsory education students migrated from rural to urban areas.Large cities as the main gathering area of the floating population,its compulsory education resources carrying capacity will face severe challenges.In recent years,the academic community on the city with the children of compulsory education more than the problem,but mostly based on the perspective of children with the theory and empirical analysis,there is little empirical study from the perspective of the city.Therefore,from the analysis of the contradiction between the quantity and structure of compulsory education resources in large cities,it is necessary to scientifically measure the carrying capacity of compulsory education resources in big cities,which is of great significance to rational planning,layout and allocation of compulsory education resources in metropolitan areas.We assume that the floating population is based on the expected cost-benefit calculation of education under the influence of "education" and "rally" of educational resources to make a decision along with their children.In the city of influx,under the influence of government preference,there is often a lack of attention to the demand for public service of compulsory education.The quality of compulsory education resources is based on the value of the statute to solve the contradiction between the supply and demand of educational resources and the process of the contradiction between the supply and demand of education resources is a relatively scarce,mobile and uneven basic public service resources.The research on the carrying capacity of compulsory education resources in big cities is a systematic project involving multiple influencing factors and requiring multi-subject coordination.At present,the contradiction between supply and demand of compulsory education resources in large cities shows the characteristics of urban type concentration and supply and demand pressure embedding.Through the analysis of the regional urbanization development trend and the characteristics of the population aggregation in the big cities,it is found that the scale of the large and large cities is increasing,the suburbanization of primary and secondary schools is obvious,and the differences in the size of the school age are prominent.Based on the analysis model of big city development model and population agglomeration contradiction,this paper analyzes the urban public service demand of urban "cut corners" and the expansion of scale and neglects the city to increase the demand for public service of resident population.It proves that the pressure of education resources in big cities is not Is simply the result of pooling of school age,but the result of the high mobility and heterogeneity of the school age population embedded in the urban education structure and social structure.Based on the system theory,the author analyzes the theoretical analysis model of population,education,society and resources,which is the carrying capacity of compulsory education resources in big cities,and expounds the characteristics of the system carrying capacity of compulsory education resources in big cities,conditional constraints,differences,"Sustainable carrying" and "quality bearing" two-dimensional value coordinates,as well as coordination of internal and external values of education and understanding of internal and external elements of joint education resources system to improve the allocation of compulsory education resources to improve and enhance the educational resources system capacity and The theoretical structure of support ability.On the basis of this,the paper constructs the three-dimensional index system of the background(population,economic input,urban space),input field(human,material and financial resources),output field(school,student),and explains the structural relationship between indicators to refer to.The imbalance of educational resources carrying capacity among different units in different regions,and the embedding of educational resources in different types of schools is the general cause of the contradiction between supply and demand of compulsory education resources in big cities.Based on the analysis of the medium and microscopic samples of Dongguan City,it is found that the compulsory education resources carrying capacity of the first-mover advantage area is relatively higher,which is more likely to have higher compulsory education resources carrying "conditions" and more attractive to the school-age population A large number of aggregation,and ordinary public schools,high-end private schools,ordinary private schools between the three educational resources carrying capacity was in descending order.Therefore,for different types of large cities to strengthen the classification guidance work,docking city degree warning and floating population information management,increase financial transfer payments,increase the supply of degree resources,explore the reform of teacher management mechanism to enhance the quality of private school education.

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  • 【网络出版投稿人】 东北师范大学
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