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技术丰富课堂环境下高阶思维发展模型建构研究

【作者】 姜玉莲

【导师】 解月光;

【作者基本信息】 东北师范大学, 教育技术学, 2018, 博士

【摘要】 未来社会的需求将是个性化与创新性人才。这些变化都需要重构教育的新形态,促使学习者从知识与技能习得转向高级综合能力的培养。反映在具体的课堂教学情境中,就是深层次学习、知识建构、问题解决等高级认知活动,以及思维的自我监控等智力与非智力因素之间的相互作用。而这些都需要利用丰富的技术样态以及所创设的课堂丰富环境来改善学习,进而促进高阶思维的发展。但目前国内对技术支持下的高阶思维课堂情境研究,大多停留在价值与意义描述上,缺乏技术、思维与课堂教学情境的复杂性分析、实证性研究和可操作性流程设计。因此,聚焦技术丰富课堂环境下高阶思维发展规律和模型建构研究具有重要的实践意义与理论价值。基于以上背景与问题,本研究从课堂情境和发展视角,围绕技术丰富课堂环境对高阶思维发展变化及影响规律这一核心问题,对技术丰富课堂环境下高阶思维发展的本质、过程、机制及规律进行系统化分析与归纳性推理,在真实课堂情境和具体教学过程中,逐步完成发展模型的意义建构、模型解释与应用建议。研究共包含三大部分:技术与思维发展关系辨析是本研究的出发点;技术丰富环境与高阶思维本质解析是本研究的基础;针对丰富课堂环境、课堂教与学活动、高阶思维发展关系及其相互影响,构建高阶思维一般性、操作性发展模型是本研究的核心任务。本研究以12所不同年级、不同发展水平和6个不同发展区域的中小学为实证研究对象,以初三年级阅读写作课堂为实验干预与观察案例,综合采用了文献分析法、横断研究方法、因素分析法、结构方程法、行动研究和微观发生法等多种研究方法,并引用了目前国外潜变量建模比较受推崇的Mplus作为分析工具。研究过程发现:第一,技术本身并不能直接产生思维,技术是通过不同的使用方式和情境去影响思维发生的。技术的使用与思维发展是相互影响的关系,尤其是网络和人工智能等新兴技术带来的复杂任务解决,使“人机”思维方式更加融合化。技术与思维的临界点是教学组织活动与策略。控制这个临界点是技术丰富课堂环境与高阶思维发展的关键环节。第二,技术丰富性除了具有“种类多”“数量大”“涉及面广”等外延概念之外,更具有“使丰富”“使广博”等内涵意义,是技术影响的内在程度与满意效果。而且由于技术呈现信息和内容能力的不同,技术存在“丰富度”差异。判断技术丰富度价值的标准是既不能“模糊过度”,也不能具有“不确定性”,需要与学习者体验需求相匹配,更要让其得到满足。第三,高阶思维结构是高阶思维发展的基础,高阶思维发展过程也是高阶思维结构的活动过程。高阶思维作为一种高级综合能力,具有复杂性、非线性和难以测量性,但可以通过学习者外显行为和情感倾向等进行识别。高阶思维系统属性决定了高阶思维行为不是一个孤立的领域,而是认知、情感、技能的共同整合。行为“统整”认知、情感、能力倾向所形成的八个静态因子、三个动态因子,以及五个思维品质因子的高阶思维结构模型,既是知识材料、思维类型、思维存在形态、思维能力倾向与品质表征组成的系统化层次结构,也是具有动态发展过程与机制的认知结构。这种基于课堂情境的高阶思维结构模型,可以对高阶思维发展过程与机制、路径与阶段进行很好的表征,提供可操作性的发展模型,其结果是培养具有高阶知识、智慧性情操和高阶思维能力胜任力的人。研究最后得出的结论是:第一,技术丰富课堂环境对高阶思维发展整体具有促进作用。但由于技术类型、样态、功能、丰富度以及呈现的内容特征和应用者个体特征的不同,技术的丰富性呈现出不同的趋势和表征。班级技术环境的应用对整个高阶思维行为都会产生显著性变化,社交媒体、资源类型与数字化平台对高阶思维的促进具有选择性,教师与学生个体应用技术环境对高阶思维发展不具有显著性。这些研究结果都说明技术与思维发展需要教与学活动组织,尤其是班级技术应用文化氛围和课堂技术丰富情境的创设在高阶思维发展中更具有重要性。第二,高阶思维发展过程具有多样性、复杂性、非线性、突变性与渐变性相结合、从低到高螺旋式发展等特征。因此,基于问题解决的高阶思维过程也是各种策略在不同阶段的优化组合,这种优化组合需要考虑个人的认知水平、认知风格、思维的倾向性以及学科、性别与区域文化等特征,也需要考虑个体在问题解决时策略的变化规律和优化解决方案,从而更好地促进高阶思维可持续发展。第三,这种基于课堂情境和发展视角,以“行为”统整为核心,围绕技术丰富课堂环境、高阶思维课堂教与学、高阶思维发展整体协调三个维度,以及高阶思维教与学活动与技术丰富课堂环境五要素之间的整合与交互机制,形成的行为统整下“三维五位一体”高阶思维协同发展模型以及创生的成熟度评价体系,从教学目标层面上有助于对高阶思维发展过程、行为表征及发展效果进行预设性和过程性评价,为教育信息化背景下高阶思维课堂发展提供了一般性理论范式,也为高阶思维课堂实践提供了可操作的认知诊断及教学干预评价体系。本研究在理论上、方法上和实践上均有一定的创新性。研究成果为教育信息化背景下高阶思维教学与评价提供了新的视角,对优化数字化资源与环境、提高学生认知水平与技能诊断、认知策略优化以及精准教学干预都提供了很好的实践性模式。模型的实践应用与完善也将是下一步研究的重点。

【Abstract】 With the rapid development of emerging technology such as Mobile Internet,Artificial Intelligence,Virtualization etc.,the human is free from procedural activities and then conduct more innovative thinking activity to promote the development of the new economic characterized with "Internet Plus" and the evolution of innovative social formation.The demand for future talents will be personalized and innovative as well as the cultivation of core accomplishment.All these changes require reconstruct the new form of education which promotes the development of learners from the acquisition of knowledge and skills to high-order thinking,thus enhance the cultivation of advanced comprehensive ability to solve problems.Reflected in specific classroom teaching context,it is the interaction between intelligence factors and non-intelligence factors,such as deep learning,knowledge construction,problem solving.While these requires take advantage of rich technology modality and creating rich classroom environment to improve learning,and promote the development of higher order thinking and the cultivation of higher order thinking good quality.But at present,domestic research on high-order thinking situation under the technical support mostly stay at the description of value and significance,and lack of complexity analysis,empirical research and operational process design for technology,thinking and classroom teaching situation.Based on the analysis of above backgrounds and problems,this research embarks from the class situation,focusing on the higher order thinking development law and model construction under the classroom environment.On the basis of document analysis,this paper takes 12 primary and middle schools of different grade,different development levels as well as different development areas as the empirical research object,the reading and writing classroom of junior grade three as experimental intervention case;blends various research methods such as the cross sectional research method,factor analysis,exploratory structural equation,causal structure equation,cooperation pattern research and micro genetic method etc.,and finally quotes foreign popular Mplus as analysis tool on latent variable model to conduct systematically analysis and Inductive reasoning for the essence,process,mechanism and regularity of higher order thought development under the technical rich classroom environment from the "development perspective".In the real classroom environment and specific learning process,the research finishes meaning construction for high order thought development model under the technical rich classroom environment.Based on the above research demand,this research centered on the relationship and mutual influence among technology rich classroom environment,classroom teaching and learning activities,the higher-order thinking development,through the comprehensive investigation and analysis of the process of thinking,thinking strategies and problem situation,finished the exploration for the transformation and rule of higher order thinking cognitive.The research consists of three parts: the relationship between technology and thinking is the starting point of this research;the technical rich classroom environmental characteristics and the high order thinking ontological interpretation is the foundation;the influence of technical rich classroom environmental and how to structure higher order thought development model is core mission.The result of research shows that:Firstly,Technology itself can not directly generate thinking,and itis comes through different usages and conditions to influence the occurrence of thinking.The relations between use of technology and thinking development are interactional,especially in the internet and artificial intelligence etc.,and these emerging technologies can solve complex task to make “man-machine” thinking ways more syncretic.The critical point of technology and thinking is the activity and strategy of teaching organization.Control of this critical point is the key to the development of high technology classroom environment and higher-order thinking.Secondly,for the technical richness,except for the denotation concept of “multitudinousvariety,extensivequantity,wider involving”etc.,it also has connotative meaning of “make rich,make extensive”,which is the inner layer and the effect of technology impact.Moreover,because of imparity that technology presents information and content,there is a difference in technological“richness”.The standard to judge technological richness is neither "fuzzy" nor "uncertainty",which needs to be matching with the experience requirements of learners.Thirdly,higher order thinking structure is the foundation that higher order thinking develops,and higher order thinking development process is also the higher-order thinking structureprocess.As higher order comprehensive ability,there are complexity,nonlinear and immeasurabilty for higher order thinking,but it can be recognized through the overt behavior and emotion of learners.The system property of higher order thinkingdetermines the behavior of higher order thinking is not an isolated area,but it is a mutual integration of cognition,emotion,and movement.The behavior“integrated”eight static factors including cognition,emotion and aptitude etc.,three dynamic factors as well as five thinking quality factorsthat reflect the development level of higher order thinking.Higher-order thinking structuremodel was either knowledge materials,thinking types,thinking existing forms,thinking tendency and qualitycharacterization which formthe systematic hierarchystructure or the cognitive structure with dynamic development process and mechanism.This kind of higher order thinkingstructuremodel onaccountofclassroom teaching can represented well the process and the mechanism,path andstage of high order thinkingdevelopment,even more provided for higher order thinking class with operational development model.It resultis that people can cultivated with advanced knowledge,sapiential sentiment and high-order thinking ability.This research finally concluded that:Firstly,technology rich classroom environment promoted higher order thinkingdevelopment.However,due to the differences of technology types,sample,function,richness,as well as the content presented and the individual characteristics of the carriers,the technological richness also presents different trends and representation.The research finds that application of class technological environment has a significant change to higher order thinking behavior;social media,resource type and digital platform are selective to promote higher order thinking;applied technological environment of teachers and student individualshas slight influence on high order thinking development.These research results illustrate that the development of technology and thinking requires teaching and learning activities,especially the application of cultural atmosphere of class technology and technology rich classroom environment have more important role on high order thinking development.Secondly,higher-order thinking development has characterized by diversity,complexity,nonlinearityand the combination of mutation and gradual change.High order thinking process which is based on problem solving is that various strategies are optimized and combined in different stages,thiskind of optimization and combinationneed to to consider the individual’s cognitive level,cognitive style and tendentiousness of thinking,and also need to consider the change rule and the optimization solution the individual’s strategies when solving problems.Thirdly,based on the Class situation and development perspective,taking “behavior” as core,surrounding three dimension of technology rich classroom environment,classroom higher order thinkingteaching and higher-order thinking development,under the support of technology rich classroom environment of knowledge sharing,resources allocation optimization,collaborative community and suitability satisfaction,under the support of higher-order thinking classroom teaching activities of goal lead,behavior characterization,ability reflection,emotional involvement,reflective evaluation;under the cooperation mechanism of communication,coordination,cooperation,coordination and support,through the integration and interaction mechanism of between technology rich classroom environment higher-order thinking teaching activities,it formed three-dimensional five one" higher-order thinking coordinated development model and creative maturity evaluation system under behavior integration,which had systematicness,complexity,collaborative,ecological characters,dynamism and operability,meanwhile it’s also the dynamic description of goal setting,process model,path change,influence effect,cognitive level diagnosis and collaborative development of the higher order thinking under technology rich classroom environment,innovatedthe theory research of higher-order thinking development rules under technology rich classroom environment,and was helpful to carry presuppose and evaluate for higher-order thinking process,behavior characteristic and development effectfrom the teaching goal,and more provided general operating theory and practiceformfor higher order thinkingteaching under the background of educational informationization.Researching the rules and model of higher order thinkingdevelopmentunder has important practical significance and theoretical value technology rich classroom environment.The research for these problems will be helpful to diagnose for Cognitive level and cognitive skills of students,thereby help cognitive strategy optimize and intervene accurate teaching,more provided new perspective forhigher order thinkingteaching under the background of educational informationization.

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  • 【网络出版投稿人】 东北师范大学
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