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计算思维主导的高中信息技术教材结构设计研究

【作者】 于颖

【导师】 周东岱;

【作者基本信息】 东北师范大学, 教育技术学, 2018, 博士

【摘要】 计算思维是21世纪学习者的必备能力。高中生作为典型的“数字原住民”,需要拥有计算思维,才能应对未来社会技术快速变革带来的各种挑战。当前,各发达国家相继把计算思维纳入国家课程标准,我国也将计算思维写进国家课程标准,并将其列为信息技术学科核心素养之一。随着课程改革的全面推进,现行教材已与新课程理念不相适应了,根源问题主要有二,一是以工具或经验为取向,对学科思维认识不清晰,二是对信息技术学科思维主导的教材设计方法不明了。而计算思维是具有学科最本质属性、最能体现学科思维的核心素养,以计算思维为主导设计高中信息技术教材,可有效解决上述问题。为此,研究主要采用了基于设计的研究范式,并结合准实验、问卷调查、访谈等方法,开展了以下三个方面研究工作。第一,回答“信息技术课程中的计算思维是什么”的问题。尽管学界关于计算思维的讨论众多,但目前尚未形成公认的概念界说。在信息技术课程领域,新修订的课程标准虽然给出了明确的概念界定,但相对概括,在实施层面需要将其结构化。为此,研究基于新课标,在思维三棱锥结构和六组计算思维分类观基础上,建构了信息技术课程的计算思维结构,并结合示例,探讨了计算思维结构具体化于课程模块的一般方法。第二,回答“计算思维主导的信息技术教材结构如何设计”的问题。研究建构了计算思维主导的信息技术教材结构设计的基本框架——CTACK,并基于CTACK设计了教材内容结构、程序结构和形式结构。具体又可分解为以下四个方面:1.建构了计算思维主导的教材结构设计基本框架——CTACK通过对课程标准及计算思维发展载体与路径的分析,适当吸收已有研究成果,得出计算思维与学科知识及活动间的相互依存与共生关系,建构了该关系框架。在此基础上,给出了基于CTACK的教材结构设计总体思路。2.基于CTACK的教材内容结构初步设计采用学科知识取向与社会经验取向融合的思路设计内容结构。两种取向的融合,规避了单纯以知识或经验取向设计教材内容的局限性,将计算思维、活动与学科知识有机融合。3.基于CTACK的教材程序结构初步设计以CTACK为统摄,在宏观的模块层面,设计了序列化结构和层级结构,在中观的单元层面,设计了项目化结构和学科生活主题系列结构,在微观的学法层面,设计了有意义接受式结构、探究式结构、体验式结构和协作式结构。尽管较之传统程序结构,各个子结构的名称并未发生较大改变,但其内涵和组织形式发生了变化,超越了单纯对知识内容的组织,走向了对知识、活动与思维的联结组织,凸显了教材基于学生主体发展的功能定位。4.基于CTACK的教材形式结构设计在形式结构方面,主要探讨了活动、知识和计算思维在教材中的图文表征,特别是,关注活动、知识与计算思维的存在方式,以及与存在方式相对应的过程性与结果性表征,以科学、准确地表征CTACK框架中各要素与要素间的关系,使计算思维主导的内容结构与程序结构得以形式化再现。第三,回答了“如何检验并改进计算思维主导的教材结构”的问题。研究通过教材编写实践和课堂教学应用实践,检验并改进了初步设计的教材结构。经实践检验发现,计算思维主导的教材结构能有效促进学生计算思维的发展。具体表现在:专家组对基于该结构的教材编写进展总体上持肯定态度,师生对基于该结构编写的教材基本满意;在使用教材前后,学生的计算思维发展水平呈正态分布。在共计四大轮八小轮的实践过程中,研究发现了教材结构存在的若干问题,并进行了修正。例如,“项目—问题—任务—活动”结构不宜继续作为程序结构,不宜用“环节”概念表达活动过程,增加对任务和活动的区分度和关系说明,加强思维支架设置的指向性、思维动词表达的准确性,调整CTACK三要素在活动中呈现的先后次序,增强三者的内聚力,等。本研究的贡献主要体现在以下两个方面:1.在研究视角方面,充分体现新课标的“学科育人”理念,摈弃了以往以工具取向或经验取向设计教材的思路,以计算思维为主导去设计教材结构。2.在理论研究方面,一是建构了信息技术课程计算思维结构,二是探讨了计算思维主导的高中信息技术教材结构设计方法,包括,建构了教材结构设计的理论框架——CTACK,基于CTACK设计了教材内容结构、程序结构与形式结构,并基于该结构形成了高中“数据管理与分析”模块新教材。研究凸显了信息技术学科思维,使得信息技术教材理论研究更具学科特色,为基于新课标的信息技术教材设计与应用提供了理论依据。

【Abstract】 Computational thinking is everyone’s basic ability in the 21 st century.As typical "digital natives",high school students need to have computational thinking in order to cope with the challenges with technology’s rapid development in the future.At present,several developed countries have incorporated computational thinking into national curriculum standards.Computational thinking has recently been written into Chinese national curriculum standards as one of subject’s key competence of ICT curriculum.With the implementation of curriculum reform,current textbooks have been incompatible with the new curriculum idea.There are mainly two fundamental problems,one is tool or experience orientation,resulting in the unclear perception of thinking embedded in the subject,the other is lack of knowledge in the method of designing ICT textbook with orientaiton of subject thinking.The design of ICT textbook structure oriented computational thinking can solve the above problems because computational thinking is a piece of key competence with the most essential subject attribute.Based on this,the study mainly adopts design-based paradigm,combined with the methods of quasi-experiment,questionnaire and interview and carries out three aspects of research work.First,the study answers the question of “what is computational thinking in ICT curriculum”.Although there are a lot of discussions about computational thinking in academia,the definition of computational thinking has not yet reached a consensus.In the field of ICT curriculum,the newly revised curriculum standard gives a clear definition of the concept,but it is relatively general and need to be structured in the implementation of ICT curriculum.To this end,the study constructs computational thinking structure of ICT curriculum by transforming pyramidal structure of thinking and the views of six groups’ computational thinking and further discusses general method to lend concreteness to computational thinking structure and provides an example.Secondly,the study answers the question of "how to design ICT textbook structure oriented computational thinking".The study constructs a design framework of ICT textbook structure whose name is CTACK and designs textbook content structure,program structure and formal structure based on CTACK.It can be decomposed into four aspects.1.Construction of CTACKThe study constructs a design framework of ICT textbook structure whose name is CTACK through analysis of new curriculum standard and developing carrier and path of computational thinking absorbing existing research results.On this basis,the paper puts forward general idea of textbook structure design based on CTACK.2.Design of content structure based on CTACKIn terms of content structure,we adopt the idea of integration of subject knowledge orientation and social experience orientation.The content design of these two kinds oforientation eventually converges,which avoids the limitation of content design simply by subject knowledge or tool or experience orientation.It integrates computational thinking with activity and subject knowledge organically.3.Design of program structure based on CTACKIn the way of program structure,we design macro-program structure which includes serialized structure and hierarchical structure,medium-program structure which includes project structure and subject life theme structure,and macro-program structure which includes meaningful accepting structure,exploratory structure,experiential structure and cooperative structure.Although program structure’s name has not changed,its content and organizational form has changed.It goes beyond organization of knowledge content and goes toward link organization of knowledge,activities and computational thinking.It highlights textbook’s functional orientation for student’s development as a person.4.Design of formal structure based on CTACKIn terms of formal structure,we mainly discusses graphic and textual representation about activities,knowledge and computational thinking in textbook.In particular,it focuses on the existence of them and the representations of process and result in order to represent three elements in CTACK scientifically and accurately.As a result,it can formalize content structure and program structure.Thirdly,the study answers the question of "how to test and improve ICT textbook structure oriented computational thinking".The study tests the application effect of textbook structure by the practice of textbook compilation and teaching in classroom.We find that ICT textbook structure can effectively promote students’ computational thinking.Specifically in:The experts are generally positive about the progress of textbook based on textbook structure.Teachers and students are satisfied with CT-led textbook structure.The development of students’ computational thinking is in normal distribution,and experimental class improves more in computational thinking than the control class..However,there are some problems to amend repeatedly,for example,"project-problemtask-activity" structure should not continue as a medium program structure.The concept of "link" to express activity process need to be abandoned and the description to illustrate the relationship between tasks and activities need to be increased.We should strengthen the directivity of thinking scaffolding and accuracy of thinking verbs,and adjust three elements’ order in activities to enhance cohesion,etc.The main contributions of this study are reflected in two aspects:1.In the aspect of research perspective,the study on ICT textbook structure oriented computational thinking fully embodies idea of "students’ development" in new curriculum standard and abandon the idea of designing textbook based on tool orientation or experience orientation in the past.2.In the aspect of theoretical research,we construct computational thinking structure of ICT curriculum and explore textbook structure design methods with computational thinking orientation including construction of theoretical framework and design of textbook contentstructure,program structure and formal structure based on CTACK.The study also forms an ICT textbook about "data management and analysis" module in high school based on textbook structure.The study highlights ICT subject thinking,which makes ICT textbook theory research have more subject characteristics and provides theoretical basis for ICT textbook design and application based on new curriculum standard.

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  • 【网络出版投稿人】 东北师范大学
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