中国基础教育博硕士论文库

节点文献

以生涯学习经验为核心的高中生职业兴趣模型的建构 ——基于社会认知生涯理论

【作者】 刘立立

【导师】 缴润凯;

【作者基本信息】 东北师范大学, 基础心理学, 2018, 博士

【副题名】基于社会认知生涯理论

【摘要】 关注高中生职业兴趣的形成过程,探寻其职业兴趣的形成机制,仍然是我国高中生职业兴趣研究亟需开展的工作。社会认知生涯理论(social cognitive career theory,SCCT)重视职业兴趣的形成过程,通过建模解释不同生涯要素如何促进职业兴趣的形成,可作为高中生职业兴趣形成机制研究的理论基础。但已有的SCCT职业兴趣相关研究,因缺乏生涯学习经验或对生涯学习经验的研究不够充分,导致研究结果难以深入解释各生涯要素影响职业兴趣的内在机制。可见,生涯学习经验研究是进一步探讨职业兴趣形成过程的重要研究基础。目前,国内关于高中生生涯学习经验和职业兴趣形成机制的研究还很匮乏。针对以往研究的不足,本研究首先开展我国高中生生涯学习经验的测量研究,然后考察SCCT职业兴趣模型中与生涯学习经验有关的生涯要素间的理论关系,最后以生涯学习经验为核心建构高中生职业兴趣模型。主要分为四个子研究:研究一编制可适用于我国高中生的生涯学习经验问卷,为建模研究提供有效的生涯学习经验测量工具。并采用自编问卷考察高中生生涯学习经验的现状水平,了解当前高中生生涯学习经验的主要特点。研究二考察高中生生涯学习经验与个人-环境因素的关系,这是职业兴趣模型的重要组成部分。该部分的变量间关系体现了学生的个人特质及其所处的成长环境在生涯学习经验获得过程中的主要作用,这是个人-环境因素影响职业兴趣的重要前提。研究三考察高中生生涯学习经验与职业自我效能感、结果预期的关系,这是职业兴趣模型中的又一重要组成部分。该部分的变量间关系体现了生涯学习经验对职业自我效能感和结果预期的决定性作用。由于SCCT中职业兴趣是由职业自我效能感与结果预期共同决定的,该部分三者关系就成为了生涯学习经验能够影响职业兴趣的作用机制,也是个人-环境因素对生涯学习经验的影响得以传递到职业兴趣的重要途径。研究四在研究二和研究三的基础上,把与生涯学习经验有关的生涯要素关系和职业兴趣整合起来,建构高中生职业兴趣模型。并进一步探讨男女高中生职业兴趣形成机制的主要特点及异同之处。另外,Lent,Brown,Nota和Soresi(2003)指出Holland职业分类法适用于SCCT应用研究,由此可以避免单一职业领域研究结果的领域局限性。因此,以Holland理论作为研究所需的职业领域分类标准,所有研究都分别在Holland六种职业领域下完成。本研究的主要发现有以下几点:第一,高中生生涯学习经验问卷属于多维度理论结构,同时支持Holland职业领域六维结构与SCCT学习经验的四维结构。该问卷可作为生涯学习经验的有效测量工具应用于高中生职业兴趣建模研究中。第二,主动性人格对不同生涯学习经验的影响均显著,性别的这种影响次之,相关研究结果具有跨职业领域一致性。而父母教育背景对不同生涯学习经验的影响只体现在部分职业领域中,表现为高水平的父母教育背景有利于学生不同生涯学习经验的增长。第三,生涯学习经验显著影响职业自我效能感。其中,成就表现的这种影响最大,具有跨职业领域、跨性别的一致性,但其现状水平最低;而替代学习的影响最低,只体现在个别领域,但其现状水平最高。除成就表现外,其他三种生涯学习经验对职业自我效能感的影响存在着职业领域及性别上的差异。第四,生涯学习经验对结果预期的影响只体现在部分职业领域中且有性别差异。职业自我效能感在生涯学习经验对结果预期的影响中起到了一定的中介作用。第五,以生涯学习经验为核心并将其与其他生涯要素间的关系为基础,如此建构的Holland六种职业领域下的高中生职业兴趣模型是成立的。相关结果既支持了SCCT职业兴趣模型中的大多数理论假设,也验证了关于主动性人格、积极情绪唤起的新价值。该模型可用于解释我国高中生职业兴趣的形成机制。第六,在高中生职业兴趣模型中,生涯学习经验的重要理论角色得以较好的验证。主要体现为生涯学习经验对职业自我效能感与结果预期的直接作用及其对职业兴趣的间接影响,以及生涯学习经验在个人-环境因素对职业兴趣影响中的中介作用。但有关结果会因职业领域和性别的不同而存在差异。第七,结合个人-环境因素对职业兴趣影响的相关结果来看,学生的积极心理品质、家庭教育资源和学校生涯环境都对职业兴趣的形成产生重要影响。而且个人、家庭和学校因素对职业兴趣的促进作用,主要是通过三者对生涯学习经验的塑造来实现的。

【Abstract】 Focusing on the formation process of high school students’ career interests and exploring its formation mechanism are still needed to be carried out in China.Social cognitive career theory(SCCT)explains how career variables promote career interests develop through modeling,used as the theoretical foundation of the formation mechanism of high school students’ career interests,which attaches importance to the formation process of career interests.Research on career interests in SCCT in existence is hard to explain the internal mechanism of career variables impact on career interests,lacking the role of career learning experiences.It is indicated that research on career learning experiences is the foundation of the research on the formation mechanism of career interests.However,researches on career learning experiences and the formation mechanism of high school students in our country are still lacking.Based on the previous studies,the present study developed the measurement of the career learning experiences of high school students in China,examined the theoretical relationships between career learning experiences and other career variables in SCCT,and constructed SCCT career interests model with career learning experiences as the core.Divided into four studies:Study one: This study developed the questionnaire of career learning experiences for Chinese high school students,which can be used to construct the model of career interests.Then we investigated the status of high school students’ career learning experiences in our country,taking Changchun as an example.Study two: This study examined the relationship between career learning experiences and person-contexts factors,which is an important part of the career interests model.Study three: This study examined the relationship among career learning experiences,self-efficacy and outcome expectations,which is also an important part of the career interests model.Study four: Based on Study two and Study three,this study constructed career interests model of high school students,including the relationships among career learning experiences,other career variables and interests.In addition,Lent,Brown,Nota and Soresi(2003)noted that Holland’s theory is fit for being applied to the research on SCCT,avoiding the limitations of findings in single vocational field.Therefore,all studies were done in each of Holland’s RIASEC themes.The results as followed:(1)The questionnaire of career learning experiences for high school students is a multidimensional questionnaire,which supports Holland’s RIASEC theory and four dimensional learning experiences in SCCT.As an effective measurement tool for career learning experiences,the questionnaire can be applied in high school students’ career interests modeling researches.(2)The impact of proactive personality on different career learning experiences is the most significant and the same effect from gender is slightly weaker,and the above findings are consistent across the career areas.Comparatively,the influence of parents’ educational background on different career learning experiences is only in some career areas.The higher level of parents’ education is beneficial to the growth of students’ career learning experiences.(3)Career learning experiences significantly influence career self-efficacy.The effect of performance accomplishments is the largest,and is consistent in different career areas and different genders,but the present level of performance accomplishments is the lowest.Meanwhile,vicarious learning has the lowest impact,and only reflects in individual area,but its level is the highest.Besides of performance accomplishments,there are occupational and gender differences in the impact of the other three career learning experiences on career self-efficacy.(4)The impact of career learning experiences on outcome expectations only reflects in some career areas,and there are gender differences.Career self-efficacy mediates the effects of career learning experiences on outcome expectations.(5)It is practicable to build a career interests model which the career learning experiences is in the core of the relationships between the learning experiences and other career variables spanning Holland’s(1997)RIASEC themes.The findings not only support most theoretical assumptions of career interests model in SCCT,but also verify the values of proactive personality and positive emotional arousal.The model can be used to explain the formation mechanism of career interests of high school students.(6)It is well verified that career learning experiences play an important theoretical role in the career interests model of high-school students.It shows that career learning experiences have the direct effects in career self-efficacy or outcome expectations,and the indirect impacts on career interests,and also its mediating the effects in the impacts of person inputs and background contextual affordances on career interests.But some results are slightly different bacause of the differences of the career areas and gender.(7)Students’ positive psychological qualities,family education resources and school career education environments influence the formation of career interests.And the promoting role of personal,family and school factors on career interests,realizes mainly through the shaping of these factors from career learning experiences.

移动知网

全球学术快报

  • 【网络出版投稿人】 东北师范大学
节点文献中: