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高一数学教科书的性别差异调查研究

【作者】 张晓婷

【导师】 曹一鸣;

【作者基本信息】 北京师范大学, 学科教学(数学), 2017, 硕士

【摘要】 20世纪40年代初期,教科书性别问题的研究在西方教育界兴起,权威研究者们指出在教科书的编写过程中,普遍存在“倾向男生”、“重男轻女”的弊病。这势必导致女生在受教育的过程中受到不平等的对待。而我国这一问题研究相对落后,20世纪80年代末期,才有中国研究者对语文、历史教科书进行了研究,其结果与国外的研究结果极为相似。尽管研究者们已经指出这一问题出现的原因,也就此给出了许多改革的建议,并获得了一定的成效,但这方面的改革还远远不够,仍值得继续深入开展下去。虽然教科书性别问题的研究已开展了几十年,但针对数学教科书的研究相对较少,针对高中数学教科书的分析研究就更少。高中教育是义务教育之后,更高一级别的基础教育,对于提高全民素质有举足轻重的作用。因而,笔者选择我国现行高一数学教科书进行研究。高一数学教科书与中小学的数学教科书相比,插图少,举例少,背景资料少,绝大多数都是知识的客观描述,因而不能只是借鉴中小学教科书性别差异的研究方法——通过比较插图、标题、主角等进行性别的频次统计分析。所以,我选择从教科书最主要的使用者——学生的视角,通过学生的调查问卷进行研究高一数学教科书的性别差异。利用SPSS软件对问卷数据进行频数分析、独立样本t检验、性别交叉制表等方面的分析,根据分析结果得出以下四方面的结论:(1)现行的高一数学教科书在学习阅读、情景设置、数学文化内容、数学概念、数学知识结构、引导思维栏目、信息技术、学习方法、学习活动等各个教科书内容安排设计方面,都存在显著的男女差异,都受到男生的认可,也更适合男生阅读和学习。(2)现行的高一数学教科书在图文搭配、大小、形状等外观方面,都更受到男生的喜欢,更适合男生阅读与学习。(3)现行的高一数学教科书对男生数学学习的正面积极影响多于女生。如更能激发男生的学习热情、更能帮助男生理解教科书内容、更能引导男生进行自我反思、更能给予男生个性发挥、更能增强男生学习信心、更能促进男生数学能力发展、更能减轻男生的学习负担。(4)现行的高一数学教科书在习题部分(习题的数量、难度、种类)和探究活动(数量)部分,基本不存在男女差异。最后,针对分析结果,对教科书存在性别差异进行归因分析,给出建议。

【Abstract】 At the beginning of 1940 s,in western education,research on textbooks of gender issues have spring up.Some authoritative researchers point out that during the writing process,it exits widespread tendency to "boys","prefer boys to girls”.It means that girls don’t have equal treatment in the process of the education.In China,the study of this problem is relatively backward.In the late 1980 s,Chinese researchers only studied Chinese and history textbooks,and the results are very similar to the foreign country.Researchers have pointed out the reasons for this problem,also gave many reforms,and obtained some certain result,but the reform are not enough,and still need continue thorough development.Although the analysis of textbook gender studies have been conducted for decades,relatively few studies of mathematics and science textbooks.The analysis of high school mathematics textbook is rarer still.In addition to the compulsory education,as the basic education,high school education has higher level.High school education have pivotal role to improve the quality of the entire people.Therefore,the author chooses this topic to research.Compared with primary school textbooks,high school mathematics textbooks have less illustrations,example,and background information.The majority of the content is the objective description of knowledge;therefore we can’t just base on the analysis of primary school—By comparing the frequency of illustrations,title,leading role.So,this paper choose the main textbook users — the student’s point of view,to study the students’ questionnaires by sex differences in high school mathematics textbook.This paper use SPSS to conduct frequency questionnaire data analysis,independent sample t test and cross tabulation of gender analysis.According to the results of the analysis,it can conclude the following four sorts of conclusions:(1)There are significant differences between boys and girls in the current high school math textbook,such as scene setting,mathematical culture,mathematics concept,mathematics knowledge structure,guiding thinking,information technology,learning methods,and learning activities,the design of the books approved by boys,boys are more suitable for reading and learning.(2)The current high schoolmathematics textbooks are more suitable for boys in the aspect of graphic collocation,size,shape,and appearance.(3)The present high school mathematics textbooks have more positive impact on boys than girls.As it can stimulate the learning enthusiasm of the male students,it can help the boy understand textbook content,and guide the boys to self-reflection.The high school mathematics textbooks can help the boys to develop the individuality and more boys can enhance learning confidence,some can promote the boy mathematical ability development,and also can reduce the learning burden of boys.(4)From the other point,in the current high school mathematics textbook,there is no difference between boys and girls in the assignments section(problem sets,the difficulty and the number of species)and inquiry activity part.Finally,according to the results of the analysis,the paper does attribution analysis on the textbook gender differences problem and put forward some key points and suggestions.

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  • 【网络出版投稿人】 北京师范大学
  • 【分类号】G633.6
  • 【下载频次】593
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