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中学语文批判性阅读教学研究

【作者】 李珊珊

【导师】 荣维东;

【作者基本信息】 西南大学, 课程与教学论, 2018, 硕士

【摘要】 批判性思维作为一种思维方式一直受到以美、英为代表的西方国家的高度重视,与之相关的一些课程也被纳入到国家的教育课程体系之中。批判性阅读是欧美阅读课堂上教育者非常强调的一种阅读方式,批判性阅读教学是一种强调让学生学会提出问题、分析问题进而解决问题的教学方式。目前,在我国以北京青年政治学院为代表的一些高校开设了与批判性思维相关的课程,以谷振诣为代表的一些高校教师从逻辑学等学科出发主要对批判性思维的理论内涵及相应实际生活案例做研究分析。在中学语文教学中,以余党绪为代表的一批语文教育界老师对批判性思维及批判性阅读教学不断进行深入探讨。如余党绪从教材和教学方面以思辨性读写为挖掘点做了近10年的理论与实践上的研究,探索语文教改的真正途径。从语文教育角度来看,要培养学生拥有高素质的核心素养,语文阅读教学方面担负着重大的责任。而在我们所强调的学生应当具备的核心素养中,学生的科学精神是相对薄弱的方面,学生在理性思维、批判质疑、勇于探索等方面有很大的提升空间。批判性阅读教学则是培养学生这些能力的好的途径,让阅读的过程不仅要学生掌握基本的整体感知、初步理解等较浅显的能力,更重要的是促进学生对文本的内容和形式进行相应的分析、判断、推论,从而形成个人有理有据的观点。而从笔者问卷调查的数据结果显示来看,学生在阅读课堂上所体现出来的批判性阅读的能力并不如人意。因此,语文教师在引领和培养学生的问题意识,独立思考和判断,多角度、辩证地分析做出选择和决定等理性思维的批判质疑精神能力上任重道远。本论文在学习和借鉴阅读教学以及批判性思维等方面相关理论的基础上,以经典文本的批判性阅读教学为主要研究对象,从理论探析和具体教学实践两个方面做研究分析。论文共分为四部分:第一部分:从现实教育及当前世界教育发展的现状角度介绍了论题提出的缘由并阐述了选题的意义,对批判、批判性思维、批判性阅读、批判性阅读教学等概念进行了相应界定与分析。整合分析了批判性阅读及批判性阅读教学的有关文献资料,说明了研究思路。第二部分:采取问卷调查的方式,研究分析中学生(以高中生为样本代表)在语文阅读课堂上所表现出来的批判性思维及批判性阅读能力。从课标和教材的编写等方面做出批判性阅读教学必要性和可行性的分析并阐述批判性阅读教学应遵循的教学原则。第三部分:基于以上内容的探讨,力图从批判性阅读教学的内容策略和批判性阅读教学的方法策略两方面做出相应的建议。第四部分:对批判性阅读教学相关工作提出建议,以郭初阳的《套中人》教学案例做相应的案例分析。

【Abstract】 As a way of thinking,critical thinking has been highly valued by the United States and Britain,Some of these courses are also incorporated into the national education curriculum.Critical reading is one of the most important ways of reading in Europe and the United States.Critical reading teaching is a teaching method that emphasizes students’ learning to ask questions,analyze problems and solve problems.At present,some colleges and universities represented by Beijing Youth Politics College have set up courses related to critical thinking,Some teachers in Colleges and universities,represented by Gu Zhenyi,mainly analyze the theoretical connotation of the critical thinking and the corresponding real life cases.In the Chinese teaching of middle school,a group of Chinese language teachers represented by Yu Dangxu do in-depth research critical thinking and critical reading teaching are discussed.If the remaining thread from textbooks and teaching of reading and writing in the speculative do research on the theory and practice of nearly 10 years of mining,to explore the real ways of Chinese teaching reform.From the point of view of Chinese education,it is necessary to cultivate students with high quality core literacy,which is responsible for Chinese Reading Teaching.In the core of the students,we should emphasize that the scientific spirit of the students is relatively weak,and the students have a lot of room for improvement in rational thinking,critical questioning,courage to explore and so on.Critical reading is a good way to cultivate the ability of students.The reading process is not only promote students master the basic ability of a preliminary understanding of the overall perception,more simple,more important is to promote students’ content and form of the text of the corresponding analysis,judgment,inference,to form a personal view point.From the results of the survey data show that critical reading ability of the students reflected in the reading class is not satisfactory.Therefore,the Chinese teachers in the lead and cultivate students’ problem consciousness,independent thinking and judgment,multi angle,dialectical analysis to make choices and decisions such as criticism of rational thinking ability of questioning spirit has a long way to go.On the basis of learning the basis of reading teaching and critical thinking aspects of relevant theories,this paper make critical reading of the classic text as the main research object,from the two aspects of theory and practice teaching research and analysis.This paper is divided into four parts.Part 1:This paper introduces the reasons of the proposition from the perspective of reality education and the present situation of the development of the world education,and expounds the significance of the research.The concepts of critical,critical thinking,critical reading,critical reading teaching are defined and analyzed.This part analyzes the relevant literature of critical reading and critical reading teaching,and illustrates the research ideasPart 2:A questionnaire survey was conducted to study the critical thinking and critical reading ability of middle school students(represented by high school students)in Chinese reading class.This paper makes an analysis of the necessity and feasibility of critical reading teaching from the aspects of curriculum standards and teaching materials,and expounds the teaching principles that should be followed in critical reading teaching.Part 3:Based on the above discussion,the author tries to make some suggestions from two aspects: the content strategy of critical reading teaching and the methods of critical reading teaching.Part 4:This paper gives some suggestions on the relevant work of critical reading teaching,and make Guo Chuyang’s related teaching case as the corresponding case analysis.

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