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幼儿园游戏活动中教师有效观察研究

【作者】 朱萌萌

【导师】 李姗泽;

【作者基本信息】 西南大学, 学前教育学, 2018, 硕士

【摘要】 首先,游戏是学龄前儿童的主要生活和学习方式。大量研究证明幼儿在游戏中能够获得社会领域、认知领域、语言领域等方面的发展。区角活动中幼儿自主的游戏情景和可观察到的幼儿游戏行为为教师观察提供了最真实的观察场景。其次,观察是具有理性、发展性、反思性眼光的基本教师专业行为。教师的观察能力在一定程度上能反映出教师的专业程度,所以为教师提出有效观察的要求能促进教师自身的专业发展。幼儿园游戏活动中教师的有效观察可以帮助教师更有效的了解幼儿,为教师做出教育决策提供帮助,以便为幼儿发展提供下一步的促进计划。最后,由于教师观察意识、观察专业知识以及观察能力的缺失与不足,导致当前教师在观察的时候不知道怎么观察、观察什么、观察之后怎么做,有的甚至把观察当作是一种工作压力,在这种情形下的教师观察有效性得不到保障。本研究采用文献法、观察法、访谈法、文本分析法作为本文的研究方法。首先选取重庆某幼儿园的某中班的幼儿和教师作为观察对象,采用非参与式观察,观察时间两个月,观察记录到的教师观察行为45份。其次选取两所不同幼儿园的12名教师作为访谈对象,与教师进行半结构式访谈。再次按照论文需求,对从这两所幼儿园中收集到122份教师观察记录材料进行文本分析。最终通过观察幼儿教师和分析教师观察记录文本材料,研究者了解教师在实践当中的观察行为,得到教师有效观察的具体表现以及所存在主要问题。通过访谈,研究者了游戏活动中教师观察的重点,以及教师理解有效观察等内容。本文主要由四部分内容组成:一、幼儿园游戏活动中教师有效观察的内涵与判断标准。经过文献分析,研究者从观察过程和观察结果对幼儿园游戏活动中教师有效观察的内涵进行了阐述,然后根据两大内涵得出了游戏活动中教师有效观察的判断标准,即:观察中能筛选出幼儿游戏中的有教育意义的信息、观察时能敏锐捕捉到幼儿发展的教育契机、观察结果能为教师做出教育策略提供判断依据。二、幼儿园游戏活动中教师有效观察的具体表现。依据有效观察的内涵和判断标准,研究者通过实践观察和对教师观察记录文本材料的分析发现,游戏活动中教师有效观察主要表现在三个方面:第一从教师看的层面,教师能筛选有教育价值的信息。第二从教师想的层面,教师能探寻幼儿游戏行为背后教育契机。第三从教师做的层面,教师能利用观察结果做出教育策略的判断。三、幼儿园游戏活动中教师有效观察存在的问题及原因分析。通过在实践中的观察与访谈,研究者发现游戏活动中教师观察有效性存在的问题及原因主要包括:第一观察意识薄弱,筛选有意义信息的主动性不足;第二相关知识与经验的欠缺,观察过程中捕捉教育契机敏锐度不足;第三教师实践智慧欠缺,观察后制定教育策略的灵活性不足;第四观察外部环境支持性有待提升,教师观察动力不足。四、提高教师观察有效性的建议策略。整合已有研究,研究者主要从以下三方面对教师有效观察提出建议策略,第一教师增强观察意志,提高观察敏锐度;第二注重专业理论知识和经验的积累,提升教师观察实践技能;第三通过教师“对话”,建立教师有效观察保障机制。

【Abstract】 First of all,the game is the main way of life and learning for preschool child.A large number of studies have shown that children in the game can be obtained in the field of social,cognitive,language,and other areas of development.In the corner activities,the children’s independent game scene and the observable behavior of the young children provide the most realistic observation scene for teacher.Secondly,the observation is a rational,developmental,reflective vision of the basic professional behavior of teachers.To some extent,the teacher’s observation ability can reflect the professional level of teachers,so it can promote the teachers’ professional.The effective observation of teachers in kindergarten games can help teachers to understand children more effectively and help teachers to make educational decisions,so as to provide the next step for the development of children.Finally,due to the lack of teachers’ sense of observation,observation of professional knowledge and the ability of observation and shortcomings,leading to the current teachers at the time of observation,do not know how to observe,observe what,how to do after observation,even some of them regard observation as a working pressure,in this case the teachers observe effectiveness cannot be guaranteed.This research adopts the method of literature,observation,interview and text analysis.First select a class in a kindergarten in Chongqing’s children and teachers as the object of observation,using non-participant observation,observation time of two months,gained 45 Observation recording material of teachers observed behavior.Secondly,12 teachers from different kindergartens were selected as the subjects of the interview and semi-structured interviews were conducted with the teachers。According to the needs of the thesis,the author collected 122 teachers’ observation materials from the two kindergartens for text analysis.In the end,by observing the kindergarten teachers and analyzing the teachers’ observation records,researcher understand the observation behavior of teachers in the practice,obtain the performance and mainproblems of teachers’ effective observation.Through interviews,the researcher focuses on the teachers’ observation in the activities of the game,as well as the effective observation of teachers’ understanding.This paper consists of four partsThe first part: The connotation and the standard of teacher’s effective observation in the kindergarten games.Through literature analysis,the researchers described the connotation of teachers’ effective observation in kindergarten game activities from the observation process and the observation results.Then according the two connotation of that standard,the researcher obtained the judgment criteria of effective observation of teachers in game activities.that can screen out children played in the process of meaningful information,that is to say,we can screen out the meaningful information in the process of children’s play,observe the educational opportunity which can capture the development of children,and the results can provide the basis for the teachers to make the education strategy.The second part: The concrete expression of the effective observation of teachers in kindergarten games.According to the connotation of effective observation and judgment standard,Through the analysis of the practical observation and the analysis of the text material of the teacher observation record,the author found that teachers play effective observation mainly in three aspects: First,from the perspective of teachers looking,teachers can select information of educational value.Second from the perspective of teachers thinking,teachers can explore the educational opportunities behind children game behaviors.Third from the level of teachers doing,teachers can make use of observation results to make the education strategy.The third part: Analysis on the problems and reasons of effective observation of teachers in kindergarten games.Through the observation and interview practice,the researchers found that teachers observe problems and reasons of existence of the effectiveness of the game activities mainly include: first,teacher observation awareness is weak,lack of initiative for screening meaningful information;second,lack of relevant knowledge and experience,sensitivity of capturing the education opportunity in observation process is insufficient;third,teachers lack of practical wisdom,lack of flexibility in the formulation of educational strategies;fourth,Observation of external environmental support needs to be improved,teacher observation power shortage.The fourth part: Suggestions for improving the effectiveness of teacher observation.Integrating the existing research,the researcher mainly from the following three aspects to improve the teachers’ effective observation suggested: first teacher identityobservation,improve teachers’ observation acuity;second focus on professional knowledge and experience,improve teachers’ observation practical skills;third teachers "dialogue",establish safeguard mechanism for teacher effective observation.

【关键词】 幼儿园游戏活动教师有效观察
【Key words】 KindergartenTeacherGame ActivitiesEffective Observation

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  • 【网络出版投稿人】 西南大学
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