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幼儿教师心理弹性研究 ——基于西南地区的调查

【作者】 江可

【导师】 胡福贞;

【作者基本信息】 西南大学, 学前教育学, 2018, 硕士

【副题名】基于西南地区的调查

【摘要】 心理弹性是指个体面临逆境或压力情境时,能直面威胁、积极有效地克服困难、并能适应良好、顺利发展的能力。目前国外关于心理弹性的研究已较为丰富深入,但国内研究尚处于起步阶段,且既有研究多聚焦于处境不利儿童、贫困大学生以及监狱里的罪犯等特定人群。本研究以幼儿教师作为研究对象,通过对西南地区335名幼儿教师的调查研究了解我国西南地区幼儿教师心理弹性的特点。对幼儿教师心理弹性的研究有助于幼儿教师清楚认识自身,缓解其工作压力,促进其心理弹性水平的提升。对于幼儿教师而言,由于工作场域的特殊性,其面临的主要逆境和压力情境更多的是来自工作中的琐碎细小且持续众多的幼儿园生活事件尤其是负性事件的影响,在此种情境下,本研究将幼儿教师的心理弹性界定为:在幼儿园中,幼儿教师能直面困境,积极持续有效地应对繁杂的幼儿园生活事件,能在幼儿园教育教学活动中适应良好并顺利发展的能力。本研究遵循“理论建构——问卷编制——现状调查与分析——建议与思考”的研究思路。笔者首先在借鉴国内外相关文献和既有问卷或量表的基础上,结合对相关资料的整理,在理论上确定了影响幼儿教师心理弹性的因素。然后,根据理论构想的结果,编制了幼儿教师心理弹性初测问卷并发放问卷进行调查,通过对初测问卷的结构分析,经过修改并形成正式问卷。最后,通过对西南地区的335名幼儿教师进行问卷调查,初步揭示了幼儿教师心理弹性的现实状况。研究发现,幼儿教师心理弹性的影响因素主要由七个维度构成,分别是:自我接纳、成就动机、自我效能感、问题解决能力、情绪调控、职业卷入和社会支持。总体而言,当前我国西南地区幼儿教师的心理弹性处于中上等水平,但各维度表现不均衡,存在较大差异性。且其主要影响因素:幼儿教师素质不高、幼儿园教研活动低效影响问题解决能力和自我效能感的提升;幼儿教师工作压力大等影响幼儿教师的成就动机水平;消极的情绪体验影响幼儿教师情绪调控能力;家长、园所支持不足减少了幼儿教师获得的社会支持;福利待遇差,社会地位低等因素降低了幼儿教师的职业忠诚度,影响了教师的职业卷入程度和自我接纳程度,这些都将最终影响幼儿教师的心理弹性水平。据此,本研究认为,为了提升幼儿教师心理弹性水平,保障幼儿教师的身心健康发展,需要幼儿教师、幼儿园、家长以及相关部门四个方面做出努力。首先,幼儿教师要提高对自我的接纳程度,丰富知识储备,提升专业技能,提高问题解决能力,增强自我效能感,其次,幼儿教师要善用自我更新策略,妥善应对压力,提高成就动机水平。此外,幼儿教师还应该树立正确归因方式,感受积极情绪体验。而对于幼儿园来说,一方面,要保证教研活动效率,提升幼儿教师教研质量,另一方面,还要形成关怀机制,建立和谐的同事关系。当然,家长要积极配合教师工作,共创家园共育的良好局面。对于上级主管部门来说,一是要拓宽幼儿教师的专业学习渠道,提升其专业化水平;二是要定期开展休闲放松活动,愉悦幼儿教师身心;最重要的还是要加大学前教育的财政投入力度,提高幼儿教师的工资水平。这样多管齐下,共同提升幼儿教师的心理弹性水平。综上所述,本研究具有一定的创新之处,但由于研究者能力和条件的局限,仍存在许多不足,需要在今后的研究中进一步完善。

【Abstract】 Resilience refers to the ability one can face a threat and overcome the difficulties actively and effectively,and could adapt and develop well when an individual is faced with adversity or stress situation.The current researches on the resilience in foreign countries have been more abundant and deep,but the research in domestic is still in its infancy,and existing researches have focused on specific groups of disadvantaged children,poor college students and prisoners.This study takes preschool teachers as the research object,and this paper preliminarily studies the characteristics of preschool teachers’ resilience through the investigation and study of 335 early childhood teachers in Southwest China.The study on preschool teachers’ resilience is helpful for preschool teachers to understand themselves,relieve their work pressure,and promote their resilience.For preschool teachers,because of its special field,the main stress and pressure situation they faced is more from the impact of work in small and trivial and sustained many kindergarten life events especially the negative events.In this context,the resilience of preschool teachers will be defined as: in the kindergarten,preschool teachers can face difficulties,continue to actively and respond to the complex kindergarten life events effectively,and can adapt and develop well in teaching activities in kindergarten.This study follows the "theoretical construction--questionnaire survey--analysis of the status quo--suggestions and thinking".Firstly,based on the domestic and foreign relevant literature and questionnaire and combined with the collation of relevant information,this paper determines the structure of preschool teachers’ resilience in theory.Then,according to the results of the theoretical conception,the author made a preliminary questionnaire of preschool teachers’ psychological resilience to survey.Finally,through the questionnaire survey of 335 kindergarten teachers in Southwest China,this paper reveals the reality of preschool teachers’ resilience.It is found that the resilience of preschool teachers is mainly composed of seven dimensions: self-acceptance,achievement motivation,self-efficacy,problem solving ability,emotion regulation,career involvement and social support.Generally speaking,the mental resilience of preschool teachers in Southwest China is in the middle and upper level,but the performance of each dimension is not balanced,and there is a big difference.And the main influencing factors: the quality of preschool teachers is not high and the kindergarten teaching activities is inefficient which influence problem-solving ability and self-efficacy to improve.Kindergarten teachers’ work pressure and other factors may influence preschool teachers’ achievement motivation level;The negative emotional experience influence preschool teachers’ emotional regulation ability;Less support from parents and kindergarten reduce the social support that preschool teachers obtained;Poor benefits,low social status and other factors reduce the occupation loyalty of preschool teachers,influence teachers’ occupation involvement and self acceptance,which will ultimately affect the resilience level of preschool teachers.Accordingly,this study argues that,in order to enhance the level of resilience of preschool teachers,protect the physical and mental health of preschool teachers,preschool teachers,kindergartens,parents and relevant departments should make efforts in three aspects.First of all,preschool teachers should improve the level of self-acceptance,enhance rich knowledge,improve professional skills,then improve the ability of solving problems,enhance self-efficacy.Secondly,preschool teachers should make good use of self renewal strategy and properly deal with the pressure to improve the level of achievement motivation.In addition,preschool teachers should also establish a correct attribution to feel the positive emotional experience.For kindergartens,on the one hand,it should ensure the efficiency of teaching and research activities to improve the quality of teaching and research,on the other hand,a caring mechanism should be formed,and a harmonious relationship should be established between colleagues.Moreover,parents should cooperate with teachers actively to create a good situation of home education.For the higher authorities,one is to expand the preschool teachers’ professional learning channels,then enhance their professional level;Two is to carry out regular leisure relaxation activities to relax the physical and mental of preschool teachers;The most important thing is to enhance financial investment to preschool education,improve the teachers’ salary level.These multi pronged approaches to enhance the resilience of preschool teachers.To sum up,this research has some innovation,but because of the limitations of the researcher’s ability and conditions,there are still many problems,which need to be further improved in the future research.

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  • 【网络出版投稿人】 西南大学
  • 【分类号】G615
  • 【下载频次】665
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