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高中生学业延迟满足影响因素和作用

【作者】 祖雅桐

【导师】 路海东;

【作者基本信息】 东北师范大学, 发展与教育心理学, 2018, 博士

【摘要】 学业延迟满足(academic delay of gratification)是指学生为了追求更有价值的长远学习目标而推迟即时性满足冲动机会的心理倾向(Bembenutty&Karabenick,1998)。其本质是学习者的自我控制与自我调节能力。学业延迟满足水平较高的学习者也是成功的自我调节者,学业延迟满足可以预测学习者的学习行为和学业成绩。从已有研究来看,关于学业延迟满足影响因素和作用系统的研究很少,研究方法相对单一,研究结论也存在诸多争议之处,由于高中生群体具有其发展的特殊性,目前对专门测量高中生学业延迟满足的测评工具存在结构上的不足。本研究在综述以往有关学业延迟满足理论与实证研究的基础上,通过三个研究对高中生学业延迟满足影响因素和作用进行系统且深入的探讨。研究一的主要目的是编制适合我国高中生学习情境的学业延迟满足情境问卷并对其信效度进行检验。在问卷编制的同时,初步探索时间、价值、期望三个情境因素对高中生学业延迟满足的影响,初步探索影响学业延迟满足的结构特征,验证不同时间、价值、期望情境对学业延迟满足的影响,为进一步揭示学业延迟满足的本质提供重要依据。结果显示,高中生学业延迟满足问卷的情境设计合理,符合我国高中生的考试文化特点。问卷中设计的时间、期望和价值三个情境因素对高中生的学业延迟满足的选择有显著的影响,其中,距离考试的时间越近,对考试结果的期望越高,考试的价值越大,学生做出的延迟满足的选择倾向越强,相反,距离考试的时间越远、对考试结果的期望越低、考试的价值越小,学生做出的延迟满足的选择倾向就越弱。高中生学业延迟满足问卷的信效度指标符合心理测量学要求,可以作为测量高中生学业延迟满足水平的有效测评工具。研究二采用质性研究方法,对15名高学业满足高中生和16名低学业延迟满足高中生进行半结构化的质性访谈,引导不同学业延迟满足水平的高中生从多角度和多侧面回答与学业延迟满足的影响因素和作用有关的问题,以期初步获得高中生学业延迟满足影响因素和作用的基本信息。结果显示,高水平学业延迟满足高中生相比低水平学业延迟满足高中生具有以下特点:具有更高的自我效能感;更擅长使用动机与情绪调节策略;具有更高的表现目标取向和掌握目标取向;感受到更多的教师关心和更少的教师要求;感受到更多的父母支持和更少的父母控制;更擅长使用自我调节学习策略并通过策略的使用提高学业成绩。研究结果初步揭示,自我效能感、成就目标、动机与情绪调节策略的个体因素以及来自教师和父母的支持的外部因素对高中生学业延迟满足具有重要影响;学业延迟满足对自我调节学习策略的运用和学业成绩的提高有重要作用。研究三在研究二的基础上采用问卷测量法,运用结构方程模型对高中生学业延迟满足影响因素和作用进行系统的量化分析和模型建构,包括A、B、C、D四个子研究。研究A目的是考察成就目标取向、自我效能感、动机与情绪调节策略多个个体因素对高中生学业延迟满足的预测作用。结果显示,成就目标的四个维度(掌握趋近目标、掌握回避目标、表现趋近目标、表现回避目标)通过自我效能感和动机与情绪调节策略影响学业延迟满足。其中,动机与情绪调节策略对高中生学业延迟满足的预测总效应量最大。研究B目的是考察父母自主支持和教师自主支持的外部因素和动机与情绪调节策略的个体因素对高中生学业延迟满足的影响。结果显示,父母自主支持和教师自主支持通过动机与情绪调节策略间接对学业延迟满足产生影响。研究C目的是考察学业延迟满足对高中生自我调节学习策略的使用和学业成绩的作用,自我调节学习策略在学业延迟满足对学业成绩的影响中起到中介作用。在前三个子研究的基础上,研究D将教师自主支持、父母自主支持、动机与情绪调节策略、学业延迟满足、自我调节学习策略、学业成绩等变量同时纳入结构方程模型,建构并检验高中生学业延迟满足影响因素和作用的多重中介模型。结果显示,教师和父母自主支持均通过个体的动机与情绪调节策略间接预测高中生的学业延迟满足,学业延迟满足通过自我调节学习策略的使用间接预测学业成绩,教师和父母自主支持通过动机与情绪调节策略、学业延迟满足、自我调节学习策略多重中介作用间接预测学业成绩。基于上述研究结果,本研究得到以下主要研究结论:(1)自编的高中生学业延迟满足情境问卷具有良好的信效度指标并能够反映时间、价值和期望等与考试有关的情境因素对学业延迟满足的影响。(2)掌握趋近目标、掌握回避目标、表现趋近目标、表现回避目标、自我效能感、动机与情绪调节策略是影响高中生学业延迟满足的个体因素;教师的自主支持与父母的自主支持是影响高中生学业延迟满足的外部因素;教师自主支持和父母自主支持等外部因素通过动机和情绪调节策略等个体因素作为中介对高中生的学业延迟满足产生影响。(3)高中生的学业延迟满足通过促进自我调节学习策略的使用作为中介对学业成绩的提升间接发挥作用。(4)动机与情绪调节策略、学业延迟满足、自我调节学习策略等个体因素在教师自主支持与父母自主支持等外部因素对学业成绩的影响中扮演多重中介作用。

【Abstract】 Academic delay of gratification(ADOG)is defined as the postponement of immediately available wards in order to pursue temporally remote but more valuable academic goals(Bembenutty & Karabenick,1998).The nature of academic delay of gratification is the ability of self-control and self-regulation.The students who has high academic delay of gratification are also have high self-regulation,and academic delay of gratification could also predict learning behavior and academic achievement.In reviewing previous researches,we found that,there were many problems in this area.Firstly,there were little the researches about the influencing factor and the function of academic delay of gratification.Secondly,research methods were monotonous.Thirdly,there were many conflicts in the conclusions.Finally,considering the developmental particularity of senior high school students,there were some structural problems in the scales to measure this group’s academic delay of gratification.This study first reviewed the theory and empirical researches of academic delay of gratification,and then systematically and deeply investigated the influencing factor and the function of senior high school students’ academic delay of gratification,through 3 studies.The aim of study 1 was to develop an academic delay of gratification situation scale which was applicable for Chinese senior high school students’ academic situation,and to test reliability and validity of this scale.Furthermore,we investigate the structural feature which affected academic delay of gratification,and the effect of different time,value,expectations situation on academic delay of gratification,in order to provide the basis for uncovering the essential of academic delay of gratification.The results showed that,the situations included in the scale of senior high school students’ academic delay of gratification was appropriate to the features of examination of Chinese high school.Three situation features(time,expectations,and value)which constituted the scale had significant effect on senior high school students’ academic delay of gratification.As the time got closed to examination,the expectations of results of examination became higher,the value of examination became bigger,and tendency of academic delay of gratification became stronger.Inversely,when there was a long time from examination,the expectations of results of examination was lower,the value of examination was smaller,and tendency of academic delay of gratification was weaker.Therefore,the reliability and validity of scale of senior high school students’ academic delay of gratification could meet the standard of psychometrics,and could be used as the tools to measure senior high school students’ academic delay of gratification.In study 2,we conducted semi-structural qualitative interview on 15 senior high school students having high academic delay of gratification,and 16 senior high school students having low academic delay of gratification,using qualitative method,to induce senior high school students who had different level of academic delay of gratification to talk about the questions about academic delay of gratification from multiple viewpoints and multiple aspects.The aim of it is preliminary obtaining the essential information about the influencing factor and the function of senior high school students’ academic delay of gratification.The results showed that,compared to the students with low academic delay of gratification,the students with high academic delay of gratification had the characteristics as follows: having higher sense of self-efficacy;being good at using motivation and emotion self-regulation strategy;having higher performance goal orientations and mastery goal orientations;feeling more caring and less requirements from teachers;feeling more supports and less control from parents;being good at using self-regulated learning strategies to enhance academic achievement.The results preliminary showed that,individual factors,such as sense of self-efficacy,achievement goal,and motivation and emotion regulation strategy,and external factor,such support from teachers and parents,significantly affected senior high school students’ academic delay of gratification;academic delay of gratification significantly affected the use of self-regulated learning strategies and the enhancement of academic achievement.On the basis of study 2,study 3 used questionnaire survey and structural equation model(SEM)to conduct quantitative analysis about and to construct a model of the influencing factor and the function of senior high school students’ academic delay of gratification.There were 4 researches in this study(A,B,C,D).The aims of research A were to investigate the predictive effect of individual factor,such as achievement goal orientation,self-efficiency,motivation,and emotion regulation strategy,on senior high school students’ academic delay of gratification.The results showed that,4 achievement goal orientations(performance-approach,performance-avoidance,mastery-approach,and mastery-avoidance)affected academic delay of gratification,through self-efficiency and emotion regulation strategy.Among them,the predictive effect of motivation and emotion regulation strategy on senior high school students’ academic delay of gratification had the biggest effect size.The aim of research B was to investigate the effects of external factors,such as parents’ autonomy support,teachers’ autonomy support,and individual factors,such as motivation,emotion regulation strategy,on senior high school students’ academic delay of gratification.The results showed that,parent’s and teachers’ autonomy support indirectly affected academic delay of gratification,through students’ motivation and emotion regulation strategy.The aim of research C was to investigate the effects of academic delay of gratification on the use of senior high school students’ self-regulated learning strategy and academic achievement,and the mediating effect of self-regulated learning strategy between academic delay of gratification and academic achievement.On the basis of 3 previous researches,in research D,we put teachers’ and parents’ autonomy support,motivation and emotion regulation strategy,academic delay of gratification,self-regulated learning strategy,academic achievement into structural equation model together,and try to build and test a more integrate model of the influencing factor and the function of senior high school students’ academic delay of gratification.The results showed that,both of teachers’ and parents’ autonomy support indirectly predicted senior high school students’ academic delay of gratification,through individual motivation and emotional regulation strategy;academic delay of gratification indirectly predicted academic achievement,through the use of self-regulated learning strategy;teachers’ and parents’ autonomy support indirectly predicted academic achievement,through the multiple mediating effect of motivation and emotional regulation strategy,academic delay of gratification,and self-regulated learning strategy.According to the results of study 1 to 3,we could came to some conclusions as follows:(1)Our scale of senior high school students’ academic delay of gratification had satisfactory reliability and validity,and could reflect the effects of situational factors about examination,such as time,value,anticipation,on academic delay of gratification.(2)4 achievement goal orientations(performance-approach,performance-avoidance,mastery-approach,and mastery-avoidance),sense of selfefficacy,motivation and emotional regulation strategy were the individual factors which affected senior high school students’ academic delay of gratification;teachers’ and parents’ autonomy support were the external factors which affected senior high school students’ academic delay of gratification;the external factors,such as teachers’ and parents’ autonomy support,affected senior high school students’ academic delay of gratification,through the mediating effect of individual factors,such as motivation and emotional regulation strategy.(3)Senior high school students’ academic delay of gratification indirectly enhanced the academic achievement,through the mediating effect of self-regulated learning strategy.(4)Individual factors,such as motivation and emotional regulation strategy,academic delay of gratification,self-regulated learning strategy,played a role as mediating variables,in the effects of external factors,such as teachers’ and parents’ autonomy support on the academic achievement.

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  • 【网络出版投稿人】 东北师范大学
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