【作者基本信息】 北京师范大学， 课程与教学论， 2010， 博士
【Abstract】 The history and actual experience show that hardly a successful example of basic education reforms which are top-down and large-scale has been found both at home and abroad. It was because that these basic education reforms adhere to "extrapolate" and "revolutionary" promotion mode which has an implication of "catastrophe theory"."Catastrophe theory" of reform mainly refers to a linear knowledge of reform, in other words, it holds that revolution is an event which can be accomplished at one stroke. Thus, it is a one-sided, isolated and radical view, arguing that through reform we can "say goodbye to the past" and "destroy the old and establish the new" in a short period. "Catastrophe theory", having many ways of showing itself in the reforming practice of basic education, is threatening the healthy development of most basic education reforms. So it is time to rethink now. As for the "catastrophe theory" of reform, on one hand, we must realize that the appearance of it does have a factual basis and fundamental thoughts, and "catastrophe theory" does promote the education development at a particular time. However, on the other hand, it is hard for "sudden change" to show a right path to develop basic education. The reform strategies of "catastrophe theory" cannot push the development of basic education forward."Gradualism theory" is a theory contrary to "catastrophe theory". At present, "gradualism theory" has only been rendered as a concept of which people have only a superficial cognition. It needs a further development and improvement. The "gradualism theory" rendered in this paper holds that basic education reform should first have a keen awareness of the finiteness of people’s rationality and that basic education reform is only a finite and rational act. Secondly, we must realize that the reforming process is a process of continuous adaptation and we should abandon the thought of "plain sailing" or "reach the goal in one step". Thirdly, we should fully understand that reforming process is conditioned by social system and can not be done as what we please. Last, we should have a profound idea of the complexities of reforming process. It is influenced by many complicated factors and it is a normal phenomenon of reforms to have unexpected results or move in circles. Only by commanding "gradualism theory" of basic education reform and adhere to the reforming strategies of "gradualism theory" can we give a better guide on the reforming act and promote the development of basic education reform.Specifically speaking, the concrete strategies of "gradualism theory" are as follows. First, the reformers have to establish a systematic view upon the basic education reform which cannot proceed smoothly only with the help of an individual, a unit or an organization. The schools which are performing reforms, in particular, should strengthen their interior cooperation and the cooperation with the outside world as well. Secondly, the reform project should have a sense of "finite rationality". To be precise, the object of the reform project must be moderate and devotes to establish a "critical view of ecology". The reform should keep to a gradualistic route. Thirdly, the promotion of the reform in basic education must adhere to the "co-adaptation" principle. That is, schools, as an organization in the reform, should be not only adapted to the reform programs rendered by society but also develop and implement the reforming programs creatively with the schools’ actual situation taken into consideration. At last, we should take the right course with the problems during the reforming process. As the reforming process is complicated, problems are inevitable to come up. This needs us to face up to the problems and do our best to reflect upon our reform through these problems so that we could adjust our reform programs and ensure a benign reform. From the above analysis, the "gradualism theory" should be a main theory to instruct basic education reform.The basic education in current China is undergoing a deepening and developing phase. It depends on Chinese current education system to decide whether to choose "catastrophe theory" or "gradualism theory". However, the judgement on the current education system determines the qualities and effects. In terms of contemporary education system’s historical position in China, Chinese basic education is not on the way of changing from a traditional education to a modern education or to the so-called "postmodern education" which represents the trend of education in future. If we examine Chinese basic education system in the long history of Chinese modern education, we would find that the basic education system in China today is essentially a modern education system. The historic mission of the basic education reform is not a matter of "huge changes" or of establishing a new system, instead, it aims to deepen, develop and implement modern education reform. Therefore, "gradualism theory"should be the main notion of the basic education reform of China in 21th century. At present, the basic education reform in China should pay heed to the following problems: respect the history, be closely related with national conditions and that reform methods must combine "from top to bottom" with "from bottom to top".
- 【网络出版投稿人】 北京师范大学