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中医药大学生职业期望与个人评价、社会支持的相关性研究

【作者】 郭辉

【导师】 乔旺忠;

【作者基本信息】 北京中医药大学, 社会医学与卫生事业管理, 2003, 硕士

【摘要】 工作是生活中不可缺少的一部分。通过工作,人们不仅可赚取生活所需,还可以获得满足感和成就感。职业选择决定了人们将会从事什么工作,同时也对人们将来的生活方式、社交范围和个人成长带来重大影响,因此职业选择在人的一生中具有极其重要的意义。职业意识、职业期望的形成将决定其最终的职业选择。职业期望伴随着人生的职业生涯,不同的人会有不同的选择。年龄、性别、体质、心理素质、教育背景、家庭出身、生活区域、职业需求、就业制度、社会风气等等都会影响一个人的职业期望。特定的职业期望是劳动者将劳动能力、职业兴趣、职业价值观等内在因素与外在的就业可能性不断协调的结果。 当代大学生作为人力资源中最具有活力并掌握现代科学文化知识的群体,要按照自己所追求的价值、性格、理想等决定自己的职业,通过自己选择的职业走向社会,通过劳动,最大限度地发挥自己的能力,顺利、合理地选择职业,是与自己确定一个什么样的自我、成为一个什么样的人不可分割的问题。 自我认识,自我评价是大学生择业中必须涉及的重要问题,是大学生择业意识从“我想干什么”的幻想型转变到“我能干什么”的现实型上来的过程。自信是自我评价的一个重要方面,是一个人对自己能力或技能的感受。自信心的建立对大学生成功择业具有至关重要的作用,对大学生的择业期望和职业价值观的确立也具有重要意义。较多的支持有助于个体充分地认识自己的能力,并客观地把握现状,选择的余地较大、途径较多,进而对今后的发展有较为乐观的估计,职业期望水平相应增高。 为了进一步探索中医药大学生职业期望的现状及其与个人评价、社会支持的相互关系,本研究采用了自编基本调查问卷、职业期望量表、个人评价问卷和社会支持量表,通过整群抽样的方法,对北京中医药大学2004届毕业班的277名本科学生进行集体测试。着重分析讨论了不同专业、不同性别大学生的职业期望现状;职业价值观现状;个人评价、社会支持对学生职业期望的影响等问题。得出以下结论: 1、越来越多的学生把人生第一次的职业选择延后进行,他们希望进一步提高自身专业素质和综合素质,增加今后自身择业的信心和竞争力,另一方面缓解当前自身的求职压力。 2、男生比女生更愿意选择收入高、有自我发展机会,但风险较高的单位,而女生则比较愿意选择稳定、轻松,风险低的工作。 3、大学生具有社会性的职业期望和精神性的职业期望,比较注重自我的发展、自我价值的实现。 4、大学生具有物质性职业期望,求实惠、重收入,风险意识增强。 5、学生的择业更加实际,职业声望地位因素受到学生普遍的冷落。 6、大学生在面临择业双向选择,社会竞争日趋激烈的严峻现实面前,不自觉地降低了个人兴趣爱好等方面的要求。 7、被试全体学生中的所得到的社会支持与学生的专业满意度、自身的求职前景、学生职业期望三因素之间不具备显著的相关性,与学生的个人评价具有非常显著的正相关。 8、被试全体学生中个人评价高的学生对所学专业满意度较高,对自身的求职前景也比较乐观。 9、被试全体学生的个人评价高低与职业期望三因素中的“声望地位因素”无显著性相关。 10、个人评价高的学生在职业选择中更为重视自我发展因素,相对于职业发展中的稳定、福利性因素他们关注的较少,而个人评价低的学生他们则较少关注职业选择中的自我发展因素,却对职业稳定与福利性因素有较高关注。 本研究最后还对学生确立合理的职业期望提出了一些指导建议,并提出了本研究中存在的问题及发展方向。

【Abstract】 Working is a part that cannot be missed out in life. Through working, people are able to earn their livings, to accomplish the sense of satisfaction and achievement. It is the career choice that greatly affects or even determines people of their jobs, their future life styles, social spectrum and individual growths. Therefore, the ultimate career choice bears great importance in each individual’s life, which in turn is determined by the formation of career consciousness and career expectation. Career expectation differs from each individual. Factors such as age, gender, habitude, mentality, education background, parentage, living region, career demand, employment system, social ethos etc., all impose some influence on individual career expectation. Specific career expectation results from the continuous adjustment by individual of his or her working capability, occupation preference and career merit to external occupation feasibility.The contemporary university students, the most energetic and knowledgeable group, shall choose their careers following their value, character and ideal. They finally will melt with the society through their career choice; they will greatly exert their ability through working at the occupation they choose. The smooth and reasonable career choice is an undividable part of self-cognition and self-expectation.Self-cognition and self-evaluation are the "musts" that university students need to deal with in their career decisions; these also contribute to the transition from the illusion of "what I like to do" to the reality of "what I can do". While self-confidence is an important aspect of self-evaluation as well as self-consciousness of capability and skills, the establishment of self-confidence plays the crucial role in successful career choice, career expectation and career value. The more support received, the more sufficiently the students can realize their ability, objectively evaluate the reality, and choose from a mind-widened options; and thus the more optimistic estimate they can make about the future career development, and a higher level of career expectation they will achieve.To further explore the connection between the career expectations of students from BUCM (Beijing Univ. of Chinese Medicine) and their self-evaluation together with social support, this study adopts the methods of survey, quantitative career expectation table, self-evaluation questionnaire and quantitative social support table. The test is conducted by sampling 277 undergraduates from the year 2004 graduates. The analysis emphasizes the current situation of career expectation from different<WP=8>majors and genders, the effect of self-evaluation and social support on career expectation. The conclusions derived are set as follows:1. More and more students claim that they have deferred their career choice. On one hand they expect to advance both of their professional and integral competency and hence to increase their confidence to choose the most suitable career; on the other hand they prefer to relieve part of the pressure of the tough employment market by not sticking to unrealistic expectations.2. Male students more opt for the opportunities with high-income, high-risk and potential growth; female students care more about stability, less stress and low risk.3. The students hold both social and spiritual career expectation. Self-advancement and self-realization are all important variables factored into their career expectation.4. Material expectation such as earning and risk consciousness also increasingly combined into career expectation.5. The career choice tends to be more realistic. Career prestige and status remain no longer influential elements when the students make their decision.6. The students have lowered their demand for self-preference facing the reality of bilateral choice between job seekers and employers, and the fierce employment competition.7. There exists positive correlation between students’ self-evaluation and the social support they have received. Howe

  • 【网络出版投稿人】 北京中医药大学
  • 【分类号】G444
  • 【被引频次】21
  • 【下载频次】1244
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