【作者基本信息】 北京师范大学， 发展与教育心理学， 2008， 硕士
【摘要】 个人认识论指个体对知识以及知识获得过程的认识。近年来,随着教育心理学研究中由“冷认知”向“热认知”的转变和认知心理学中元认知研究的兴起,个人认识论的研究逐渐受到研究者的关注。许多研究者认为可以从个人认识论的角度来解释人们在思维和行为层面的诸多问题,这一假设在过去几十年间通过一些研究得以证实。最近十年,个人认识论的研究更出现了与学校教育紧密结合的趋势。该领域的研究已经取得了许多有意义的成果,但仍有一些尚待解决的问题,如认识论的理论争议、认识论的发展规律、认识论与其它学习或认知过程的关系以及认识论的文化特定性等。本研究依据Kuhn的理论,选取我国初中和高中二年级学生共127名,从绝对主义、多元主义、评价主义三个阶段、两个转折点的情况来考察认识论在个人喜好等五个领域的发展,并与美国、意大利的研究结果相对照,从跨文化比较的视角探讨我国中学生个人认识论的特点,主要得到如下结论: 1个人认识论发展存在各领域间的不同步性,各领域的发展模式中有77%的情况符合理论预期,即在艺术审美领域更容易完成第一个转折点的发展,知识判断领域更容易完成第二个转折点的发展,不同领域在两个转折点上的发展顺序大致相反,价值判断和科学知识两个领域容易发生滞留现象,与美国和意大利的研究结果基本一致; 2我国中学生个人认识论的发展处于多元主义阶段的最多,评价主义阶段较少,仍有一部分处于绝对主义阶段。在第一个转折点的发展上,年级差异显著,在第二个转折点上,年级差异不显著,年级的增高不能保证评价主义阶段的到来。性别差异均不显著。与美国和意大利的研究结果相比,我国初中生在个人喜好、艺术审美和社会知识领域处于绝对主义的人数百分比更大,而在社会知识领域处于评价主义的人数百分比更小; 3科学知识领域认识论处于多元主义阶段的学生在科学学科上的成绩好于该领域认识论处于绝对主义和评价主义阶段的学生;在社会知识和科学知识两个领域认识论处于不同阶段的学生在社会科学问题上的论证水平没有显著差异。 4我国中学生的个人认识论特点与美国和意大利的研究结果相比有一定的共同点,在个别领域,如价值和社会知识判断领域也存在发展阶段的差异。Kuhn提出的认识论发展理论以及开发的测量工具得到一定程度的支持。
【Abstract】 Peoples’thinking about the nature of knowledge and knowing, or what has been termed“personal epistemology”, has shown to be related to learning and achievement in various ways, influence cognitive processes such as reasoning and judgment throughout everyday lives and have implications for teaching by a large body of work in recent decades since the paradigm shift from an exclusive interest in cold, decontextualized cognition toward an interest in hot, situated cognition in educational psychology and a growing interest in the territory of meta-cognition in cognitive psychology. Although there is increasing attention to both theory building and empirical investigations in the realm of personal epistemology, issues such as domain and/or cultural specificity of personal epistemology, condition and implication of the development of individual’s epistemological understanding still leave without reaching an agreement. The present study involved 127 Chinese middle and high school students, focused on the issues mentioned above. Investigation was theoretically based on the developmental model of epistemological understanding proposed by Kuhn, which includes three levels of thinking about knowledge and knowing: absolutist, multiplist, evaluativist and two major transitions that constitute the progression across five judgment domains. Results were compared with that from the research of Kuhn and Mason, using the same scale. The main results and conclusions were as below:1 The progression varied across domains. 77% participants showed developmental patterns across different domains that regarded as theoretically consistent and interpretable. The sequence of attainment across domains was largely reversed for the two transitions, as predicted, with the transition to the multiplist level most likely to appear first in personal taste and aesthetic judgment domains and last in the social and physical truth domains. Transition to the evaluativist level, in contrast, was most likely to appear first in truth domains. Consistent with results in the USA and Italy, values and physical truth are the domains in which an individual who has largely made the transition to multiplism is most likely to show a lingering absolutism.2 Of the 127 participants, 78% expressed overall multiplist positions, 12% evaluativist positions and 10% absolutist positions. Referred to the first transition, percentage of middle school students who hold absolutist position was larger than that of high school students. At the second transition, there appeared no progression toward the evaluativist level of understanding with the increase in grade. Statistical analysis by gender revealed no differences. Analysis by culture showed that middle school students in China were more likely to hold absolutist positions in domains of personal taste and aesthetic judgment, but harder to be at evaluativist level in domain of judgment about social truth.3 Participants at the multiplist level of epistemological understanding in judgment about social truth showed better academic achievement on science discipline. Level of epistemological understanding did not play a significant role in argumentation quality of socio-scientific issues.4 Examination of developmental patterns across different countries revealed both similarities and differences. The developmental model of personal epistemology proposed by Kuhn seemed to be supported in different cultures. The sensitivity of the instrument, which developed by Kuhn and her colleagues to capture the complexity of epistemology called for further consideration.
- 【网络出版投稿人】 北京师范大学