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小学数学运算技能教学策略研究

【作者】 钟建林

【导师】 董涛;

【作者基本信息】 福建师范大学, 学科教学(数学)(专业学位), 2018, 硕士

【摘要】 本研究针对小学运算技能教学,致力于总结具有普适性的有效教学策略,有助于落实双基目标,帮助学生积累数学活动经验,感悟数学思想,提升学生数学核心素养.本研究发现,小学运算技能教学存在的主要问题是学生自发方法与一般方法之间没有有效沟通起来,教学目标缺乏多元性、递进性、联系性,学生学习增量少、热情低、发展慢.本研究提出了运算技能教学的四种通用策略:宏观层面注重运算内容的整体性,纵向运用相同运算技能的迁移同化新技能,横向凸显不同运算技能的联系与转化;中观层面重视算法算理的互促性,借助直观以算法促算理,借助一般以算理统算法,借助融合融算法和算理于一体,借助经验以过程促结果;微观层面,理清运算技能的层次性,借助实物进行动作性学习,借助图示与想象进行映像性学习,借助符号进行抽象性学习.同时,提出运算技能教学的关键是凸显动作心智的关联性:引导学生逐步抽象,从实物操作转向概念操作;注重简缩,从原生态操作走向简约态操作;关注结构,从操作行为转向思维关系.

【Abstract】 This study aims at summarizing the universal and effective instructional strategies on arithmetic skills of primary school.The study is helpful to implement the double-base target,helps students to accumulate math activity experience,perceive the mathematical thinking,and promote students’ core mathematics literacy.This study found that the main problems of teaching elementary arithmetic skills is no effective communication between the spontaneous method of students and general method.In this study,four general strategies are put forward.First,the macro level focus on the unity of operation content.Longitudinally,new skills assimilated by transferring the same computing skills;Transversely,Emphasizing the connection and transformation of different arithmetic skills;Second,middle level attaches the importance of algorithm and calculation witch promoting mutually,with the help of intuition on calculation to make algorithm promoted;with the help of generals of algorithm to integrating calculation,with mixing together to fuse algorithm and calculation;with help of experience of process to promote the results.Third,Micro level focus on sorting the hierarchy of arithmetic skills.the study process from the physical operation,intuitive imagination to symbolic representation is advocated.Fourth,the key is the relevance of action and mind,witch need to guide the students to achieve the following transformation:ing from the physical operation to symbolic operation gradually,simplifying from original operation to simple operation,thinking from operation to relationship.

  • 【网络出版投稿人】 福建师范大学
  • 【分类号】G623.5
  • 【被引频次】6
  • 【下载频次】409
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