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张健教育思想研究

【作者】 罗坤

【导师】 李宜江;

【作者基本信息】 安徽师范大学, 教育史, 2019, 硕士

【摘要】 张健(1919-2011年),男,安徽省肥东县人,是中国近现代著名的教育工作者。1930年就读于南京晓庄学校佘儿岗自动小学,1932年转学到上海山海工学团学习,担任赵泾巷分团长,参与普及教育和难民教育工作。1938年,先后担任马列学院研究室研究员、辽西民主学院教育主任、东北大区国民教育处副处长等职。新中国成立后,历任中央教育部党组成员、清华大学副校长、中国教育学会副会长、中央教育科研所负责人等职务,既战斗在教育第一线,也有相当长的时间工作在教育行政领导部门,为新中国的教育科研、教育理论发展做出重要的贡献。张健教育思想的形成深受陶行知生活教育思想的熏陶和马克思主义教育思想的洗礼。其教育思想体系主要涉及到教育本质和目的、教育与社会的关系、教育内容、各级各类教育、教师以及教育方法六个方面。在教育本质和目的上,他指出教育是人类所特有的综合性的社会实践活动,根本目的在于为国家建设培养高素质的劳动者和合格人才。在教育与社会的外部关系上,指出不能“就教育论教育”,教育与经济、政治、科技有着密切关系,要辩证统一看待;在教育内容上,强调要从教育的德、智、体、美、劳五育来对学生进行教育;在各级各类教育中要统筹基础教育、高等教育、职业教育和农村教育的发展,加强四种教育类型的改革;张健特别指出要重视教师的地位,教师需要满足一定的标准才能担负起教师的责任,要加强对教师的教学管理以及进修和培训;此外,在教育方法上张健也有所研究,提出“全面发展打基础因材施教育人才”、提倡启发式教学、注重发挥教师的主导作用、使学生成为自学和自治的主人。在近现代教育史上,张健的教育思想对当时的教育事业产生重要影响,这种贡献是不容忽视的。虽然他的教育思想具有一定的时代局限性,对当今的教育工作仍具有参考与借鉴价值。

【Abstract】 Zhang Jian(1919-2011),male,from Feidong county,Anhui Province,is a famous educator in morden China.In 1930,he studied in Sheergang Autonomatic Primary School of Xiaozhuang School in Nanjing.In 1932,he transferred to Shanghai Shanhai Engineering Group to study and served as the head of Zhaojing Lane and participated in the work of universal education and refugee education.In 1938,he seccessively as a researcher in the Research Office of the Marxism-Leninist Institute,Director of Education of Liaoxi Democratic institute,and Deputy Director of National Education Department in the Northeast Region.Since the founding of the People’s Republic of China,he has servered as a member of the Party Group of the Central Ministry of education,Vice-president of Tsinghua University,Vice-president of the Chinese Education Society,Head of the Central Education and Research Institute,etc.Both fighting in the front of education and working in the administrative department of education for quite a long time,making important contributions to the development of educational research and educational theory in New China.The formation of Zhang Jian’s educational thought was deeply influenced by Tao Xingzhi’s life educational thought and the baptism of Marxist educational thought.His educational thought system involves six aspects:the essence and the aim of education,the external relationship between education and society,the content of education,the various levels of education,teachers and methods of education.As to the essence and aim of education,he pointed out that education is a special and comprehensive social practice,which aims at training high-quality workers and qualified personnel for national construction.On the external relations between education andsociety,it is pointed out that education cannot be “on the basis of education ”Education is closely related to economy,politics,science and technology,and should be treated dialectically.In the content of education,it emphasizes to educate the students from the moral,intellectual,physical,aesthetic and labor aspects of education.At all levels of education,the development of basic education,higher education,vocational education and rural education should be integrated,and the four types of education should be strengthened;Zhang Jian pointed out that the status of teachers should be emphasized.Teachers need to meet certain standards in order to shoulder their responsibilities,and to strengthen the teaching management,further education and training of teachers.In addition,Zhang Jian has made some research on educational methods,and put forward the idea of “developing students according to their aptitude ”,advocating heuristic teaching,paying attention to the leading role of teachers,making students master of self-learning and self-government in an all-round way.In the modern history of education,Zhang Jian’s educational thoughts had an important influence on the educational cause at that time,and this contribution should not be neglected.Although his educational thought has certain limitation of the times,it still has reference and reference meaning the present educational work.

  • 【网络出版投稿人】 安徽师范大学
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