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促进高中生化学键模型认知的教学实证研究

【作者】 潘平

【导师】 孙影;

【作者基本信息】 安徽师范大学, 课程与教学论(化学), 2019, 硕士

【摘要】 “模型认知”是化学核心素养的重要组成部分,提高学生模型认知能力也是核心素养的迫切要求。高中生的“模型认知”能力是指能够运用模型描述化学研究对象、解释化学现象和规律、预测可能的结果,并能够建构模型展示自己对化学事实的理解和解释。化学键理论知识是整个中学教学的核心知识,可以解释原子形成物质世界的实质、化学反应和能量变化的本质等;但化学键的知识具有抽象微观难懂的特性,也是教与学的难点。模型方法提供的观念和印象既能帮助学生更好的获取知识,又能促进学生认知结构的完善。本研究选取化学键知识为基础,进行基于模型的建模教学,试图找到促进学生化学键模型认知的教学设计新思路;并且通过实践探索模型认知对学生学习化学键概念产生的影响,从而为高中化学教学提供借鉴和参考。在综述国内外有关模型认知和化学键已有研究的基础上,以化学键知识为抓手,进行基于模型的建模教学设计;并进行实证研究,包括使用该教学设计进行实验教学、通过问卷测查实验班与对照班学生学习情况的差异,并用SPSS 22.0进行统计分析,借助定性访谈,深入探查学生在化学键概念模型认知过程中的差异。得出相应结论:(1)基于模型的建模教学对促进学生化学键模型认知有正向作用(知识认知:实验班平均成绩高于对照班,实验班学生建构的“化学键概念模型的认识”更全面;思维认知:实验班学生会用“宏观模型-微观实质”思维解决化学问题,对照班偏爱使用书本和教师教授的“词语联想”解释问题;模型教学拓展了实验班学生对问题的表征方式。)。(2)模型教学策略在化学键模型认知教学中有可行性。(3)化学键模型认知过程存在的迷思概念。(4)“基于模型的建模教学”开发的七个教学案例。基于此研究结果,为了促进高中生化学键模型认知,提出了四条相应的教学建议;最后是对本研究的不足进行反思,以期改进。

【Abstract】 "Model cognition" is an important part of chemical core literacy,improving the students’ "model cognition" ability is also an urgent requirement for core literacy.High school students’ "model cognition" ability refers to the ability to use models to describe chemical research objects,interpret chemical phenomena and regulars,predict possible outcomes,and construct models to demonstrate their understanding and interpretation of chemical facts.The knowledge of chemical bond theory is the core knowledge of the entire middle school teaching,which can explain the essence of the atom forming the material world,the nature of chemical reaction and energy change,etc.But the knowledge of chemical bonds has abstract,microscopic,and incomprehensible characteristics,and is also a difficult point in teaching and learning.The concepts and impressions provided by the model approach can help students better acquire knowledge and improve the cognitive structure of students.this paper selects the knowledge of chemical bonds as the basis for model-based modeling teaching,trying to find new ideas for teaching design to promote students’ chemical bond model cognition;Exploring the impact of model cognition on students’ learning of chemical bond concepts through practice exploration,thus providing a reference for high school chemistry teaching.Based on a review of existing research on chemical bonds and model cognition at home and abroad,Using chemical bond knowledge as the starting point,the teaching design of model-based modeling is carried out;And carry out empirical research,including the use of teaching design for experimental teaching,through the questionnaire to test the difference between the experimental class and the control class students,and using SPSS 22.0 for statistical analysis,through qualitative interviews,in-depth exploration of students in the chemical bond conceptual model cognitive processdifferences.corresponding conclusions are drawn:(1)Model-based modeling teaching has a positive effect on promoting students’ chemical bond model cognition(Knowledge cognition: the average grade of the experimental class is higher than that of the control class,and the “knowledge of the chemical bond conceptual model” constructed by the experimental class students is more comprehensive;Cognition of thinking: Students in the experimental class will use the "Macroscopic model-microscopic essence" thinking to solve the chemical problem,and the control class prefers to use the book and the teacher’s "word association" to explain the problem;model teaching expands students’ representation of problems.).(2)Model teaching strategies are feasible in the cognitive teaching of chemical bond models.(3)There are some myths about the chemical bond model.(4)Seven teaching cases developed by "model-based modeling teaching".Based on the research results,four corresponding teaching Suggestions were put forward to promote the cognition of the chemical bond model in senior high school students;Finally,it is to reflect on the shortcomings of this study and with a view to improving.

  • 【网络出版投稿人】 安徽师范大学
  • 【分类号】G633.8
  • 【被引频次】3
  • 【下载频次】381
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