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投入工作,愉悦生活:特质正念对日常恢复的影响机制

【作者】 周扬

【导师】 马红宇;

【作者基本信息】 华中师范大学, 应用心理学, 2019, 硕士

【摘要】 目前,普遍的巨大压力已影响了人们的健康生活,而实现健康生活需要个体能够从日常压力中恢复过来,这对个人和组织均有益。然而,脑力劳动者的增加使恢复领域面临巨大挑战。过去的恢复研究认为个体脱离工作需求后便能或多或少地发生恢复;但对脑力工作者而言并非如此:他们在短暂休息的过程中更可能思考其它问题,从而只转移了注意力的方向,却仍维持高水平唤醒而难以恢复。针对这一现状,有学者对恢复进行重新界定:在全天过程中控制和调节资源消耗和重建的过程。新界定一方面表明工作期资源变化同样重要;另一方面提出个人在资源流动中的作用,而这需要消耗个体有限的自控能力或自我调节资源。因此,本文将采用“工作-休息周期”的全天视角同时考虑工作期和恢复期,并研究特质正念(与更强的自控能力和自我调节行为有关,以下简称正念)对不同时期资源变化的影响机制。因此,本研究基于资源保存理论,(1)以工作-休息周期视角,同时从工作期和恢复期探究正念对日常恢复的影响及其机制,(2)以过程视角,探究正念与时间对恢复的交互作用。具体来说,本研究对91名脑力工作者进行了一项五天四时点的日记研究。结果:(1)在工作期和恢复期中,高正念者能尽快投入该阶段角色(投入工作或获得愉悦体验),从而降低工作期的资源消耗、促进恢复期的资源重建;(2)正念与时间对愉悦体验产生交互作用,而未对工作期和恢复期结束时的恢复状态产生交互作用。具体来说,随着一周时间变化,低正念者的愉悦体验和两时期结束时的恢复状态均逐渐升高;高正念者的愉悦体验保持较高水平而未出现系统性变化,而其恢复状态均虽保持较高水平,但在一周中的变化与低正念者无异。理论贡献:(1)同时考虑工作期和恢复期,一方面确定了特质正念是愉悦体验的促进因素,另一方面首次将工作投入作为促进恢复的机制;(2)以恢复领域新提出的过程视角,为先前探索日常体验循环变化和工作周结构的作用的研究增加证据。实践建议:个人应多学习并练习正念,并在工作周初期多参与喜爱的恢复活动,避免疲劳累积。组织应引入正念干预以实现“双赢”,同时在工作周初期多提供其他有益恢复的措施。

【Abstract】 At present,people’s healthy life has been affected by the widespread great stress,and the realization of healthy life requires individuals to recover from the daily stress,which is beneficial to individuals and organizations.However,as the dramatically increasing number of mental workers,the recovery field faces huge challenges.Previous recovery studies thought that when demands are no longer imposed upon people they would more or less automatically recover from work.However,this perspective does not necessarily apply to mental workers:people may still think about the activity they are engaged in during the short break,which still would require involvement of their mental capacities.In view of this situation,some scholars have redefined recovery as an all-day process to restoring and expending resources,and is actively controlled or regulated by the individual.The new definition,on the one hand,indicates that the flow of resources during work period is equally important as which in recovery period.On the other hand,it proposes the role of individuals in the flow of resources,which requires the consumption of limited self-control or self-regulating resources.Therefore,the current study will consider both the work period and the recovery period from the all-day perspective of "work-rest cycle",and explore the influence mechanism of trait mindfulness(related to stronger self-control and self-regulating behavior,hereinafter referred to as mindfulness)on flow of resources in different periods.Therefore,based on the Conservation of Resources Theory,using a diary design(N=91;5 days;4 measurement occasions per day),the current study(1)explored the influence mechanism of mindfulness on daily recovery from the perspective of work-rest cycle,and(2)explored the interaction between mindfulness and time on recovery from the process perspective.Results:(1)in the work period and recovery period,high mindfulness individuals can be engaged in the roles of different current stages as soon as possible(work engagement or pleasure experience),so as to reduce the resource consumption in the work period and promote the resource restoration in the recovery period;(2)mindfulness and time interact on pleasure experience,but not on the recovery state at the end of working period and recovery period.Specifically,the pleasure experience and the recovery state at the end of two periods of low mindfulness individuals gradually increased as the week progressed;the high mindfulness individuals maintained a high level of pleasure without systemic change during the week,however,although the high mindfulness individuals remained a high level of recovery state,but the change trajectories was the same as that of the low mindfulness individuals.Theoretical contributions:(1)considering both the work period and the recovery period,the current study found that trait mindfulness is the promoting factor of pleasure experience on the one hand,and on the other hand,it takes work engagement as the mechanism to promote recovery for the first time.(2)our research adds to previous research exploring cyclical variation and day-of the week effects in everyday experiences in the newly proposed process perspective of the recovery field.Practical advice:individuals should learn and practice mindfulness,and engage in favorite recovery activities at the beginning of the week to avoid accumulation of fatigue.Organizations should introduce mindfulness interventions to achieve"win-win"outcomes,while providing additional restorative strategies at the beginning of the week.

  • 【网络出版投稿人】 华中师范大学
  • 【分类号】B842
  • 【下载频次】215
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