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主观社会阶层对攻击性的影响:一个有调节的中介模型

【作者】 范帷筹

【导师】 郭永玉;

【作者基本信息】 华中师范大学, 基础心理学, 2019, 硕士

【摘要】 人类的攻击性不仅会导致人际冲突,破坏人际和谐,它的极端表现形式还会影响到社会稳定,引发社会焦虑。正因如此,心理学界向来都保持着对攻击性的研究兴趣,并留下了丰厚的研究成果。在攻击性的影响因素研究中,学者们一致发现个体的社会阶层与攻击性存在关联。但是,两者之间究竟是何种关系却未达成定论,影响它们关系的中介机制及边界条件也未得到充分探讨。为了深入挖掘社会阶层对攻击性的影响及其心理机制,本研究通过回顾相关文献提出了三个假设并构建了一个有调节的中介模型,以及设计了两个子研究来验证假设及模型。研究一为相关研究,以社会成人被试为样本考察社会阶层,相对剥夺感,公正世界信念以及攻击性之间的关系。问卷通过网络发放,共收到有效问卷355份。问卷所用量表主要包括主观社会经济地位MacArthur阶梯量表,相对剥夺感量表、公正世界信念量表以及攻击性量表。研究结果支持了三个假设以及有调节的中介模型,即相对剥夺感在主观阶层和攻击性之间起到中介作用,公正世界信念能调节主观阶层对攻击性的直接作用以及相对剥夺感中介作用的前半段。具体而言,当公正世界信念水平较低时,主观阶层越低,个体的相对剥夺感越高,进而攻击性越强;当公正世界信念水平较高时,主观阶层的预测效应不显著。研究二为实验研究,以180名在校大学生被试为样本,通过操纵社会阶层,考察其对不同水平公正世界信念个体的相对剥夺感以及攻击性的影响。其中,对相对剥夺感和攻击性的测量采用与研究一不同的方式以增加研究结论的可靠性。研究二结果与研究一相似,不同之处在于公正世界信念并未调节社会阶层对攻击性的直接效应。综上所述,本研究探明了社会阶层和攻击性的关系以及影响该关系的心理机制,具有一定的理论价值和现实意义。本研究得出的主要结论如下:(1)主观社会阶层能负向影响攻击性;(2)相对剥夺感在主观阶层对攻击性的影响中起中介作用;(3)公正世界信念能调节主观阶层对攻击性的直接作用,以及相对剥夺感中介作用的前半段。

【Abstract】 Human aggression not only leads to interpersonal conflict and destroys interpersonal harmony,its extreme manifestation also affects social stability and cause social anxiety.For this reason,the psychological community has always maintained a research interest in aggression,and conducted lots of research.When examining the influencing factors of aggression,scholars have consistently found that there is a correlation between individual social class and aggression.However,studies about the relationship between them have not yet reached a consensus conclusion,and the mediating mechanism and boundary conditions which affect the relationship have not been fully explored.In order to further explore the influence of social class on aggression and its psychological mechanism,this study proposes three hypotheses and constructed a moderated mediation model by reviewing relevant literature,and designs two sub-studies to verify the hypotheses and model.Study 1 used correlational method,which examined the relationship between social class,individual relative deprivation,belief in a just world and aggression with social adult samples.There were totally 355 participants who validly finished the online questionnaire.The questionnaire mainly included MacArthur Ladder Scale,Relative Deprivation Scale,Belief in a Just World Scale and Aggression Questionnaire.The results supported the three hypotheses and a moderated mediation model.We found that relative deprivation played a mediating role between subjective social class and aggression,and belief in a just world moderated not only the direct effect of subjective social class on aggression,but also the mediating effect of relative deprivation.Specifically,when the level of belief in a just world is low,the lower the subjective social class,the higher the relative deprivation and aggression;when the level of belief in a just world is high,the effects of subjective social class are not significant.Study 2 used experimental method and took 180 college students as samples.By manipulating social class,we examined the effects of subjective social class on relative deprivation and aggression of individuals with different levels of belief in a just world.In this study,relative deprivation was measured by a different scale and aggression was measured by competitive reaction time task to increase the reliability and validity of the research.The results of study 2 were similar to those of study 1,the main difference between two results lay in that belief in a just world did not moderate the direct effect of social class on aggression in study 2.In summary,this study has explored the relationship between social class and aggression and the psychological mechanism affecting it,which has certain theoretical value and practical significance.The main results showed that:(1)subjective social class negatively affected aggression;(2)relative deprivation played a mediating role between subjective social class and aggression;(3)belief in a just world moderated not only the direct effect of subjective social class on aggression(in study 1),but also the mediating effect of relative deprivation.

  • 【网络出版投稿人】 华中师范大学
  • 【分类号】B842
  • 【下载频次】357
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