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戒断性干预对网络游戏成瘾者前注意偏向的影响及其神经机制

【作者】 郑阳

【导师】 贺金波;

【作者基本信息】 华中师范大学, 基础心理学, 2019, 硕士

【摘要】 随着网络游戏成瘾被ICD-11列入成瘾性精神障碍类型,对网络游戏成瘾的相关临床研究就显得尤为重要。与其他类型的成瘾研究相比,网络游戏成瘾的戒断性干预研究显得十分不足。以往研究表明,网游成瘾者对网络游戏相关图片表现出前注意偏向,且负性情绪会增强该前注意偏向,而负性情绪也是网络游戏的重要戒断症状之一,那么,对网络游戏行为的戒断性干预是否会影响网游成瘾者的前注意偏向?这种影响内在的脑神经机制是什么?本论文设计了两个研究,分别探索了不同时长的网游戒断性干预对网游成瘾者前注意偏向的影响,并进一步比较了二者的区别。研究一选取了30名网络游戏成瘾的大学生,随机分为戒断干预和非干预组。选择熟悉度较高的游戏中的常见装备图片为实验材料,以标准-偏差反转Oddball范式为实验流程,以失匹配负波(Mismatch Negativity,MMN)为电生理学指标,并配以负性情绪量表记录被试负性情绪,探索了网络游戏行为的短期(三天)戒断是否会使成瘾者的负性情绪增强,从而增强其前注意偏向。结果发现,与戒断干预前相比,被试在三天后负性情绪显著增强,MMN显著增强,前注意偏向增强,且负性情绪的变化与MMN波幅的变化呈显著负相关,而非干预组的前后测指标并无显著差异。根据成瘾的负强化理论,网游成瘾者在短期戒断后出现了负性情绪增强的戒断症状,为了缓解这种负性情绪,其对“游戏”这种带来快乐的成瘾行为的渴求增强,从而增强了对网游相关线索的前注意偏向。研究二采用同样的被试,探索长期(七天)的戒断是否会降低成瘾者的负性情绪,并减弱其前注意偏向。结果发现,与戒断干预前相比,被试在七天后MMN显著下降,前注意偏向减弱,而此时负性情绪虽有所下降,但负性情绪与MMN波幅变化并无显著的相关关系。根据成瘾的诱因-易感化模型,长期戒断后,网游成瘾者的前注意偏向减弱,这可能是出现了“去诱因-易感化”,网游线索对网游成瘾者的突显性降低,成瘾者大脑神经对成瘾线索的敏感性降低。以上两个研究表明,短期戒断能够增强网络游戏成瘾者的前注意偏向,长期戒断能够降低网游成瘾者的前注意偏向,短期和长期的戒断性干预可能存在不同的内在认知神经机制。本论文研究成果在理论上进一步探讨了网游成瘾者的发生发展机制,在实践上为网络游戏成瘾的治疗提供了新的路径和方法。

【Abstract】 With the Internet gaming disorder being listed as the type of addictive mental disorder by ICD-11,the clinical research on Internet gaming disorder is particularly important.Compared with researches on other types of addiction,the research on abstinence of Internet gaming disorder appears to be very insufficient.Previous studies have shown that online game addicts show pre-attentional bias to game-related pictures,and negative emotions will enhance the pre-attentional bias.While negative emotions are also one of the important withdrawal symptoms.So,will online game abstinence affect the pre-attentional bias of online game addicts?What is the neurological mechanism of this effect?In this paper,two studies were designed to explore the effects of different abstinence duration on the pre-attentional bias of online game addicts,and further explore the differences and connections between them.Study 1 selected 30 college students who were addicted to online games and divided them into abstinence group and non-abstinence group randomly.The common equipment pictures in games with high familiarity were selected as experimental materials.The deviation-reversal Oddball paradigm was used as experimental process.Mismatch Negativity(MMN)was used as physiological index,and negative emotions were recorded with negative emotional scale.The purpose of this study was to explore whether short-term abstinence(3 days)could enhance the negative emotions of addicts and enhance their pre-attentional bias.The results showed that the negative emotions,MMN and attention bias were significantly increased after three days of abstinence compared with those before abstinence,and the change of negative emotions was negatively correlated with the change of MMN amplitude,while there was no significant difference between the pre-and post-test indicators in the non-abstinence group.According to the theory of negative reinforcement of addiction,subjects show withdrawal symptoms of negative mood enhancement after short-term abstinence.In order to alleviate this negative affect,their thirst for addictive behavior of "game" which brings happiness is enhanced,thus enhancing the pre-attentional bias of game-related clues.In study 2,the same subjects were followed up longitudinally to explore whether long-term abstinence(7 days)could reduce the negative emotions of addicts and attenuate their pre-attentional bias.The results showed that the MMN decreased significantly and the pre-attentional bias weakened after seven days of abstinence compared with before abstinence.While the negative emotions decreased,but there was no significant difference with the baseline,and there was no significant correlation between the negative emotions and the change of MMN amplitude.According to the incentive sensitization model of addiction,the pre-attentional bias of addicts decreased after long-term abstinence,suggesting that the prominence of online games clues to addicts decreased,which may be a reverse proof of "incentive sensitization",that is,"de-incentive sensitization".In the process of long-term abstinence,the sensitivity of brain nerves to addiction cues decreases,which leads to the decrease of the degree of craving for addictive behavior.This also indicates that the changes of brain nerves caused by Internet games addiction may be reversible.These two studies suggest that short-and long-term abstinence may have different intrinsic psychological and neurological mechanisms during the withdrawal process of online game addiction.The design of this paper is of great value to the theoretical research and clinical intervention of Internet game addiction abstinence.On the one hand,it helps to further explore the intrinsic mechanism of the pre-attentional bias of Internet game addicts.On the other hand,it confirms the changes of brain nerve mechanism and withdrawal symptoms in different periods during the process of Internet game abstinence.

  • 【网络出版投稿人】 华中师范大学
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