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库尔勒市少数民族初中物理合作学习实施现状及对策研究

【作者】 何洁

【导师】 张建民;

【作者基本信息】 陕西师范大学, 教育硕士(专业学位), 2019, 硕士

【摘要】 合作学习是新课程改革的教学理念,也是全面培养学生素质和提高学生学习能力的有效途径。合作学习作为我国新课程改革提倡的教学方式之一,其关注度迅速提高,其研究成果也逐渐增多。但是其研究大多是关注经济较发达地区,对于西部偏远地区的研究较少,由于传统观念和经济水平的限制,这些欠发达地区实施新课程较晚,其实施情况也不像发达地区那样乐观。因此,本文以库尔勒市为例,从物理学科入手,结合当地双语教育背景,对库尔勒市少数民族初中物理合作学习实施现状进行调查研究。本研究首先通过阅读并梳理合作学习相关文献,对本研究的背景、意义进行阐述,对国内外研究现状及物理合作学习的研究现状进行分析。结合库尔勒市教学实际情况,将本研究的理论基础确定为群体动力理论、人本主义学习理论、建构主义理论、练习理论和教学工学理论。其次,进行调查研究。主要采用问卷调查法、个体访谈法和课堂观察法进行调查。(1)问卷调查。从教师和学生两方面展开,确定调查维度并进行信、效度分析,然后对问卷进行统计分析。(2)个体访谈。为了解教师在使用合作学习过程中存在的困难及优化合作学习实施方面的建议,因此选取部分教师进行访谈以对问卷调查结果进行补充。(3)课堂观察。在实习学校深入课堂,对课堂中教师及学生的活动进行观察,从第三视角了解库尔勒市初中物理合作学习实施现状,获得调查研究的第一手资料。本研究得出的主要结论为:(1)大多数教师和学生对合作学习持积极态度,教师也通过各种渠道了解合作学习并尽力运用到物理教学中但教师普遍反映缺少机会培训学习,师生对合作学习的认识还不到位;(2)部分学校已形成自己的合作学习模式,如巴州第三中学的“三五二”教学模式。在合作学习实施过程中教师角色定位明确能够与学生相互配合,合作课堂评价主要为教师课堂评价和课后作业评价,然而也存在一些问题,如合作学习小组产生方式不科学;合作学习中教师指导不到位、学生参与不均衡;教师和学生对合作学习的评价及反思不充分等;(3)在物理教学中合作学习使用频率较低,实施效果欠佳。由于部分学生基础差、汉语理解能力较弱、部分教师教育观念落后等多种因素影响,合作学习在库尔勒市还没有广泛实施;(4)针对调查研究中存在的问题,分别从教师、学生、学校三个方面进行原因分析并提出相应的对策建议,对教师来说要继续学习,加强自身课堂组织能力;对学生来说要加强自身知识学习,培养合作意识;对学校来说要尽可能提供优质的教学环境,促进教师进修。

【Abstract】 Cooperative learning is the teaching philosophy of the new curriculum reform,and it is also an effective way to comprehensively cultivate students’ quality and improve students’ learning ability.Cooperative learning,as one of the teaching methods advocated by China’s new curriculum reform,has rapidly increased its attention and its research results have gradually increased.However,most of its research focuses on economically developed regions.There are few studies on remote areas in the west.Due to traditional concepts and economic constraints,the implementation of new courses in these less developed regions is relatively late,and their implementation is not as optimistic as in developed regions.Therefore,this paper takes Korla as an example,starting from the physics subject,combined with the background of local bilingual education,to investigate the status quo of the practice of physics cooperation learning of ethnic minorities in Korla.This study firstly explains the background and significance of this research by reading and combing the relevant literatures of cooperative learning,and analyzes the research status at home and abroad and the research status of physical cooperative learning.Combining the actual situation of teaching in Korla,the theoretical basis of this research is determined as group dynamics theory,humanistic learning theory,constructivist theory,practice theory and teaching engineering theory.Second,conduct research and research.The survey is mainly conducted by questionnaire survey,individual interview method and classroom observation method.(1)Questionnaire survey.From the perspective of teachers and students,determine the survey dimensions and analysis the reliability and validity,and then conduct statistical analysis on the questionnaire.(2)Individual interviews.In order to understand the difficulties teachers have in the process of using cooperative learning and to optimize the implementation of cooperative learning,some teachers are selected to conduct interviews to supplement the questionnaire results.(3)Class observation.In-depth classes in the internship school to observe the activities of teachers and students in the classroom,from the third perspective,we can understand the status quo of the implementation of physics cooperation learning in junior high school in Korla,and obtain first-hand information on investigation and research.The main conclusions of this study are:(1)Most teachers and students are positive about cooperative learning.Teachers also learn about cooperative learning through various channels and try their best to apply it to physics teaching.However,teachers generally reflect the lack of opportunities for training and learning,and teachers and students’ understanding of cooperative learning is still not in place;(2)Some schools have formed their own cooperative learning model,such as the"352" teaching model of Bazhou No.3 middle school.In the process of cooperative learning implementation,the role of the teacher is clearly defined to cooperate with the students.The collaborative classroom evaluation mainly evaluates the teacher’s classroom evaluation and homework assignment.However,there are also some problems,such as the cooperative learning group production is not scientific;the teacher’s guidance in the cooperative learning is not in place,students are not evenly involved;teachers and students are not fully satisfied with the evaluation and reflection of cooperative learning;(3)Cooperative learning in physics teaching is less frequent and poorly implemented.Due to the poor foundation of some students,weak Chinese understanding,and the backwardness of some teachers’ educational concepts,cooperative learning has not been widely implemented in Korla;(4)According to the problems existing in the investigation and research,the reasons are analyzed from three aspects:teachers,students and schools,and corresponding countermeasures are proposed,for teachers,they should continue to learn and strengthen their classroom organization skills;for students,they should strengthen their knowledge and learn to cultivate a sense of cooperation;for schools,we should provide a high-quality teaching environment and promote teachers’ training.

  • 【网络出版投稿人】 陕西师范大学
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