【作者基本信息】 陕西师范大学， 教育硕士（专业学位）， 2019， 硕士
【摘要】 语法是英语学习的主要内容之一,语法教学在英语教学中扮演着重要角色。现今我国很多学校的语法教学主要存在两种教学现象:一种是应试教育迫使教师采用填鸭式教学法在课堂上花费大量时间为学生灌输语法规则,学生则需花费大量时间记忆语法规则以取得高分,在巨大压力中被动地学习语法,久而久之便丧失对语法学习的兴趣。另一种是为了实现英语学习的交际目的,教师给学生布置任务或者在课堂中组织多种教学活动让学生练习英语,从而少教或者不教语法。学生们只是机械地模仿标准的表达方式并做题海式的训练,导致忽视语法学习以及学习英语片面化。这两种教学现象使得学生的语法学习与交际能力严重脱节。新课改强调学生是学习的中心,教师应该重视学生的全面发展,学校要鼓励学生进行合作学习和创新学习。英国的托平教授和美国的弗彻斯教授从20世纪80年代起就开始了对同伴教学法的研究。同伴教学法是以学生讲授或者相互辅导为主要教学方式,其核心理念是尊重学生在学习中的主体地位,为学生提供轻松活跃的学习和交流氛围,目的是使课堂教学有效且实用,同时鼓励并激发学生的合作学习意识和创新学习意识。以建构主义学习理论、社会文化理论以及学习金字塔理论为基础,同伴教学法提倡知识的主动建构和互动的学习方式。本研究尝试将同伴教学法运用于语法教学中来检测其对高中生语法成绩和语法学习态度的影响。本研究旨在解决3个研究问题:(1)同伴教学法对学生语法成绩有什么影响?(2)同伴教学法对学生语法学习态度有什么影响?(3)学生对于同伴教学法的态度是什么?研究对象是来自内蒙古包头市第二中学高一年级的116名学生,其中实验班58人,控制班58人。实验从2018年4月开始到7月结束,为期共三个月。研究工具包括语法测试题、调查问卷以及访谈。语法测试题用来检测学生的英语语法水平。调查问卷有两个:第一个高中生英语语法学习情况调查问卷用来测量学生的英语语法学习态度;第二个同伴教学法满意度调查问卷用来检测实验过后学生对于同伴教学法的态度。访谈是为了进一步获得学生对同伴教学法的深层感受和看法。数据收集完毕后,利用SPSS的独立样本t检验和配对样本t检验来分析数据并检验其显著性差异。为了获得更多有效文字数据来支持数字数据,NVivo 10用来分析访谈数据。以下是主要的研究发现:1.同伴教学法提高了学生的语法成绩,主要归功于其以下几点优势:充分的独立思考时间、详尽的解释、深入的理解以及充分的课前预习。2.同伴教学法改善了学生对语法学习的态度,原因是:学习兴趣的提高、轻松的学习氛围、表达能力的提高以及来自于同伴的鼓励。3.学生们对同伴教学法持有积极的态度,原因在于语法成绩的提高、语法学习态度的改善以及学习能力的提高。学生们受益颇多,普遍认为同伴教学法是一种有效的教学方法。本研究的实验样本有限,未来的研究可以选择来自其他年级和不同文化背景的学生。课堂观察法可以在未来的研究中记录学生课堂中的真实表现以便即时收集数据。同伴教学法还可以被用在其他语法点的教学以及英语学习其他方面的教学中来检验其对于学生英语学习的效果。
【Abstract】 Grammar is one of the main contents of English learning and grammar teaching plays a crucial role in English teaching.There are two major teaching phenomena in the current situation of grammar teaching in many schools in China.One is that the exam-oriented education makes teachers occupy most of the time in class to inculcate grammar rules to students by using cramming method of teaching.Students have to spend lots of time remembering these rules in order to get high scores.As a result,they learn these rules passively under great pressure and lose interest in learning grammar.The other is that teachers give students many tasks and activities to complete and hardly teach grammar in order to achieve the aim of communication in learning English.Students just mechanically imitate the authentic expressions and do excessive exercises,which results in the neglect of grammar learning and partial English learning.In a word,these two phenomena lead to a big gap between grammar learning and the communication skill.But New Curriculum Reform highlights that students take the central position in learning;teachers should pay attention to students’all-around development;schools ought to encourage the cooperative learning and innovative learning.Professor Topping from the UK and Professor Fuchs from the United States began to focus on the study of peer tutoring from the beginning of the 1980s whose key idea was to teach and instruct students by their peers so that the learning atmosphere could be changed into a more active and effective one.Peer tutoring stresses the dominant role of students in learning,gives students an active atmosphere to communicate and encourages their cooperative and innovative learning.Based on the Constructivist Learning Theory,Social Cultural Theory and Cone of Learning Theory,peer tutoring advocates the active construction of knowledge and the interactive learning pattern.Therefore,this study attempts to apply peer tutoring to grammar teaching to investigate its effects on students’grammar scores and students’attitudes toward grammar learning.And this study aims to answer the following three questions:(1)What is the effect of peer tutoring on students’ grammar scores?(2)What is the effect of peer tutoring on students’ attitudes towards grammar learning?(3)What are students’attitudes towards peer tutoring?Participants in this research were 116 first-year senior high school students from NO.2 High School in Baotou,Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.There were 58 students in the experimental class and 58 students in the control class.The research lasted for about three months from April in 2018 to July in 2018.The research instruments included grammar tests,two questionnaires and an interview.Grammar tests were employed to test students’grammar competence.Questionnaire1 was Grammar Learning Situation of Senior High School Students which aimed to measure students’ grammar learning attitudes.Questionnaire2 was Students’Satisfaction with Peer Tutoring which was used to investigate students’ attitudes towards peer tutoring after the experiment.The interview was conducted to get more information about students’ perceptions and feelings of peer tutoring.The data collected in the experiment were analyzed by independent samples t test and paired samples t test in order to examine the significant differences with SPSS 17.0.In order to find more useful and supportive information,NVivo 10 was used to analyze the qualitative data.The following three points are the main findings:1.Peer tutoring improves students’ grammar scores owing to its advantages:enough time for independent thinking,elaborate explanations,deep understanding and full preparation.2.Peer tutoring improves students’ attitudes towards grammar learning,which results from the enhancement of learning interest,the relaxed learning atmosphere,the improvement of expression ability and the encouragement from peers.3.Students hold positive attitudes towards peer tutoring,which can be found in the improvement of grammar scores,the improvement of grammar learning attitude and the improvement of learning ability.They benefit a lot from peer tutoring and perceive it as an effective method.However,the experimental sample of this research is limited.Future research can employ students from different settings,different grades and cultural backgrounds.The classroom observation as a method of data collection is recommended in future studies to show students’actual performance in class in time.And peer tutoring can also be applied to the teaching of other grammar points and other aspects of English to further prove its effectiveness.
- 【网络出版投稿人】 陕西师范大学