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家庭体育环境、锻炼自我效能与初中生体育锻炼行为的关系研究 ——以南京市四城区初中生为例

【作者】 郑亚男

【导师】 毛文慧; 史曙生;

【作者基本信息】 南京师范大学, 体育教学(专业学位), 2019, 硕士

【副题名】以南京市四城区初中生为例

【摘要】 个体的生理、心理均诞生于家庭,家庭在后天环境中起着不可替代的作用,对个体的影响深远而持久;而锻炼自我效能可以激发和维持个体的体育锻炼行为,帮助个体克服早期参与体育运动时所面临的的障碍。初中生处于个体身心剧烈变化以及快速发展的时期,且初中阶段是其运动能力的突增期和体育锻炼行为习惯形成的关键期,为有效促进初中生养成积极运动的生活方式,本研究从家庭体育的角度出发,结合锻炼自我效能的内部心理角度为初中生的体育锻炼行为促进提供咨询和干预的依据。研究采用问卷调查法,分层整群抽样选取了 967名初中生作为调查对象,运用描述性统计分析和方差分析以考查初中生家庭体育环境的特征、锻炼自我效能的特点以及初中生体育锻炼行为现状以及三者各自的基本差异;其次运用皮尔逊相关分析法以及复回归分析法,探讨了家庭体育环境、锻炼自我效能和初中生体育锻炼行为之间的关系。研究结果:(1)家庭体育物理环境各维度均低于平均分;家庭行为环境中屏幕限制、锻炼限制、行为支持、口头鼓励高于平均分;家庭体育心理环境中锻炼价值、运动能力期望高于平均分。家庭体育物理环境、家庭体育行为环境以及家庭体育心理环境上的得分在家庭收入具有差异性(P<0.01);不同文化程度的家庭体育物理环境、家庭体育行为环境存在差异性(P<0.01),而在家庭体育心理环境不存在差异性(P>0.05);(2)初中生锻炼自我效能总体处于较低水平,其中低锻炼效能组约占66%。男生锻炼自我效能高于女生(P<0.01);独生子女的锻炼自我效能高于非独生子女(P<0.05);而超重学生的锻炼自我效能低于正常体重、体重偏轻学生(P<0.01);(3)初中生体育锻炼行为总体处于中等锻炼水平,其中小运动量人群占54.1%,中运动量人群占34.4%,而大运动量仅占11.5%。体育锻炼行为存在明显的性别差异,男生的锻炼总量、运动强度、单次运动时间均高于女生(P<0.01);偏瘦的学生的运动强度显著高于正常的学生,也高于超重学生(P<0.01);非独生子女的锻炼频率高于独生子女(P<0.05)。影响初中生锻炼的主要原因是学习压力(59%)以及与其他事冲突(34.1%);而初中生的主要锻炼动机为保持健康(57.8%)、体育兴趣(41.9%)、保持体型(40.5%);(4)通过相关分析发现,初中生家庭体育环境、锻炼自我效能与体育锻炼行为两两之间具有相关性。竞技体育器材、休闲体育器材、身体活动榜样、后勤支持、运动能力期望与锻炼总量低度正相关;竞技体育器材、休闲体育器材、身体活动榜样、行为支持、后勤支持、运动能力期望与锻炼自我效能低度正相关;而工作困难与锻炼效能、锻炼总量低度负相关;锻炼自我效能与锻炼总量中度正相关;(5)复回归分析显示,家庭体育环境和锻炼自我效能能够预测初中生体育锻炼行为的发展,但是解释率只能达到24.1%,说明还有很多其他因素影响着初中生体育锻炼行为的发展,有待进一步的探讨。根据研究结果得出如下结论(1)尽管南京市初中生家长对孩子进行体育锻炼有较正确的价值信念,对孩子进行体育锻炼持支持态度,但初中生在家进行体育锻炼活动仍然较少,这可能与初中生学习任务重有关;(2)高收入、高文化程度的家庭更容易为孩子提供较好的家庭体育环境;(3)独生子女的锻炼自我效能高于非独生子女;(4)体育锻炼行为存在明显的性别差异,男生的锻炼总量、运动强度、单次运动时间均高于女生;(5)锻炼自我效能在家庭体育环境影响初中生锻炼行为的过程中起部分中介作用。

【Abstract】 Individual physiology and psychology are born in the family,the family plays an irreplaceable role in the acquired environment,and has a profound and lasting impact on the individual.Exercise self-efficacy can stimulate and maintain individual physical exercise behavior and help individuals overcome the obstacles they face in the early stage of sports.Junior high school students are in a period of dramatic changes and rapid development of their individual body and mind,and the junior middle school stage is the period of sudden increase of their sports ability and the key period of the formation of physical exercise behavior habits,in order to effectively promote the junior high school students to develop a positive lifestyle.From the point of view of family sports,combined with the intermal psychological point of view of exercise self-efficacy,this study provides the basis of consultation and intervention for the promotion of physical exercise behavior of junior high school students.In this study,967 junior high school students were selected by cluster sampling,and descriptive statistical analysis and variance analysis were used to investigate the characteristics of family sports environment of junior high school students.The characteristics of exercise self-efficacy and the present situation of physical exercise behavior of junior high school students and the analysis of their respective differences;Secondly,Pearson correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis are used to explore the relationship between family sports environment,exercise self-efficacy and physical exercise behavior of junior high school students.The results showed that:(1)All dimensions of the physical environment of family sports were lower than the average score,screen restriction,exercise restriction,behavior support and verbal encouragement were higher than the average score in the family behavior environment;The value of exercise and the expectation of sports ability in the psychological environment of family sports are higher than the average score.The scores of family sports physical environment,family sports behavior environment and family sports psychological environment were different in family income(P<0.01).There were differences in the physical environment of family sports and the behavior environment of family sports(P<0.01),but there was no difference in the psychological environment of family sports(P>0.05).(2)The overall self-efficacy of the junior high school students is at a lower level,and the lower exercise performance group is about 66%.The self-efficacy of the male-child exercise is higher than that of the female(P<0.01);the self-efficacy of the one-child exercise is higher than that of the non-child(P<0.05);and the self-efficacy of the overweight students is lower than that of the students(P<0.01);and(3)The physical exercise of the middle school students is in the middle exercise level,Of these,54.1%of the population,34.4%of the population,and 11.5%of the large amount of exercise.There was a clear gender difference in the behavior of physical exercise,the total amount of exercise,the intensity of exercise and the time of the single exercise were higher than that of the female(P<0.01);the exercise intensity of the lean students was significantly higher than that of the normal students(P<0.01).The frequency of the non-one-child exercise is higher than that of the one-child(P<0.05).The main reason to influence the middle school students’ exercise is the learning pressure(59%)and the conflict with other events(34.1%),while the main motivation of the middle school students is to keep the health(57.8%),the interest of sports(41.9%)and the body size(40.5%).(4)There is a correlation between the family sports environment,exercise self-efficacy and physical exercise behavior of junior high school students.Competitive sports equipment,leisure sports equipment,physical activity model,logistics support,sports ability expectations and exercise total low-level positive correlation;Competitive sports equipment,leisure sports equipment,physical activity model,behavior support,logistics support,sports ability expectation and exercise self-efficacy low degree positive correlation,and work difficulty and exercise efficiency,exercise total low degree negative correlation;Exercise self-efficacy was positively correlated with the total amount of exercise.(5)Multiple regression analysis showed that family sports environment and exercise self-efficacy could predict the development of physical exercise behavior of junior high school students,but the explanation rate could only reach 24.1%.It shows that there are many other factors that affect the development of physical exercise behavior of junior high school students,which need to be further discussed.The main results are as follows:(1)Although the parents of junior high school students in Nanjing have a more correct value belief in physical exercise for their children and have a supportive attitude towards physical exercise for their children,there are still few physical exercises carried out by junior high school students at home.This may be related to the heavy learning task of junior high school students.(2)Families with high income and high educational level are more likely to provide a better family sports environment for their children,(3)The self-efficacy of the only child is higher than that of the non-only child.(4)There are obvious gender differences in physical exercise behavior,the total amount of exercise,exercise intensity and single exercise time of boys are higher than those of girls.(5)Exercise self-efficacy plays a part of intermediary role in the process of family sports environment affecting the exercise behavior of junior high school students.

  • 【网络出版投稿人】 南京师范大学
  • 【分类号】G633.96
  • 【被引频次】4
  • 【下载频次】414
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