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轻器械体操对幼儿大肌肉动作发展的实验研究

【作者】 任可清

【导师】 王佳丽;

【作者基本信息】 南京师范大学, 体育教学(专业学位), 2019, 硕士

【摘要】 目的:幼儿时期是人一生中动作技能和智力发育的起步与奠基时期,也是身体发育与智力发育的一大高峰时期,更是各种动作和动作习惯定型的时期,这一时期幼儿的动作发展为其整个人生奠定基础,幼儿大肌肉动作的发展是该时期动作发展的主要内容。因此在这一时期对幼儿大肌肉动作发展进行调查研究和干预是发现、解决幼儿动作发展问题、促进幼儿动作发展的需要。现阶段我国幼儿园的体育活动较为单一。而轻器械体操作为基本体操的一种,将音乐、操化、器械结合起来,在进行徒手操化的基础上,持球、棒、响铃等物体进行操控动作练习,不仅能够丰富幼儿园的日常体育活动,提高幼儿运动兴趣,而且对其身体素质、大肌肉动作发展、智力、心理的培养都能产生良好的影响。希望通过本研究使得幼儿教育工作者在幼儿这一关键时期重视大肌肉动作的发展,并为他们提供相对较为科学的实证依据,为幼儿动作发展及轻器械体操的普及献出微薄之力。方法:选取南京市一所公办幼儿园三个大班的幼儿为实验对象,随机确定一个班级为球操组,另一个班级为响铃操组进行干预实验,第三个班级为对照组不进行体操项目的干预,两实验组以南京市幼儿基本体操大赛规定动作为教学内容进行8周的干预实验,每周干预两次,每次干预时间为30分钟。运动干预前后使用大肌肉动作发展量表(TGMD-2)对幼儿位移动作及物体控制动作进行测量,以明确该阶段幼儿大肌肉动作发展的水平状况。结果:1、经过8周的实验干预,球操组幼儿位移技能得分、物体控制技能得分较实验前均出现非常显著性差异(P<0.01),其中在跑、单脚跳、前滑步等位移动作中出现非常显著性差异(P<0.01),在前跨跳动作出现显著性差异(P<0.05);在原地拍球、上手投球、地滚球等物体控制动作出现非常显著性差异(P<0.01),在双手接球出现显著性差异(P<0.05);2、经过8周的实验干预,响铃操组幼儿位移技能得分、物体控制技能得分与实验前相比均出现非常显著性差异(P<0.01),其中在跑、前滑步等位移动作中出现非常显著性差异(P<0.01);在原地拍球、上手投球、地滚球等物体控制动作中出现非常显著性差异(P<0.01);3、对照组幼儿8周后位移技能得分、物体控制技能得分较实验前有所提升,但并无显著性差异(P>0.05);4、两实验组即球操组与响铃操组相比,在位移技能得分上并无显著性差异(P>0.05);在原地拍球、上手投球等物体控制项目上出现显著性差异(P<0.05),且在物体控制技能整体得分上出现非常显著性差异(P<0.01),球操组物体控制动作得分更加优于响铃操组幼儿,球操对幼儿的物体控制能力促进效果更好;5、实验组与对照组相比,幼儿在位移技能得分、物体控制技能得分均出现非常显著性差异(P<0.01),其中在单脚跳、前跨跳、前滑步等位移动作出现非常显著性差异(P<0.01),在原地拍球、上手投球、地滚球等物体控制动作出现非常显著性差异(P<0.01)。结论:1.轻器械体操能够促进5-6岁幼儿大肌肉动作发展,幼儿在位移及物体控制动作得分上均提高,球操与响铃操能够更好的提高幼儿位移和物体控制能力,促进幼儿大肌肉动作的发展。2.幼儿园日常体育活动会对幼儿的大肌肉动作发展产生影响,但影响程度较小,并不能产生较好的促进作用。3.球操与响铃操相比,球操更能促进5-6岁幼儿物体控制动作的发展,尤其对原地拍球、双手接球、地滚球等动作的影响更为显著,球操与响铃操相比,球操可更具针对性的提高幼儿物体控制能力。

【Abstract】 Objectives:Early childhood is the starting and Iaying-off period of motor skills and intellectual development in a person’s life.It is a period of physical development and intellectual development as well as a period of forming stereotypes of various movements and movement habits.Children’s motor development level at this stage makes a good basis for their future athletic ability in their life.Gross motor development is the main aspect of motor development in children in this period.Therefore,at this stage,the investigation and intervention of gross motor development is need to discover and solve the problem of motor development in children and finally improve it.However,at present,the physical activities in kindergartens in China are relatively simple and not enough for children’s gross motor development.Light instrument gymnastics is a kind of basic gymnastics.It combines music exercise and instruments,which is very good for chindren’s gross motor development and intellectual deveploment.On the basis of hands-on exercises,holding objects such as balls,sticks,and bells to carry out the control action not only enriches the daily sports activities of the kindergarten,but also enhances the children’s sports interest.These activities have a good effect on children,s physical fitness,the gross motor development and the cultivation of intelligence and psychology.Through this research,we hope that educators of kindergartens can pay attention to the gross motor development in children in this critical period,we will provide them with relatively scientific evidence in this research,hoping to promote children’s motor development and the popularization of light instrument gymnastics.Methods:In a public kindergarten of Nanjing,we selected three senior classes as the experimental subjects.Two classes were randomly chosen as experimental groups which were given intervention experiments.One was the ball gymnastics group and the other the bell gymnastics group,the third class was the control group which was not given any intervention.Taking the Children’s Basic Gymnastics Conference’s required movements as the teaching content,we conducted an 8-week intervention experiment.Twice a week,each intervention time was 30 minutes.Before and after the exercise intervention,Test of Gross Motor Development(TGMD-2)was used to measure the displacement movement and the object control movement of the child to determine the gross motor development level in the child at this stage.Results:1.After 8 weeks of experimental intervention,the total scores of displacement skills and object control skills of the children in the ball group were significantly different from those before the experiment(P<0.01).The difference about Run,Hop and Gallop was significant(P<0.01).and the difference about Leap before and after the experiment was also significant(P<0.05).The control actions of the Stationary Dribble,Overhand Throw,Underhand Roll and other objects were also compared before and after the experiment with an remarkable difference(P<0.01)and the difference about Catch was remarkable too(P<0.05).2.After 8 weeks of experimental intervention,the total score of the displacement skill and the total object control skill of the bell group were significantly different from those before the experiment(P<0.01).The displacement movements included Run and Gallop(P<0.01).The object control action included Stationary Dribble,Overhand Throw,Underhand Roll,etc.(P<0.01).3.After 8 weeks,the control group’s displacement skill score and object control score improved compared with those before the experiment,but there was no significant difference(P>0.05);4.When comparing the results of the two experimental groups(the ball group and the bell group),There was no evident difference in scores between them(P>0.05).However there appeared a significant difference in Stationary Dribble and Overhand Throw(P<0.05).And the difference in the overall score of the control skill was significant too(P<0.01).The object control skill score of the ball group was better than that of the bell group.That is to say,the ball gymnastics contributes more to the object control skill of the children.5.Compared with the control group,the experimental group’s displacement skill score and object control skill score were significant different(P<0.01).There were remarkable differences in the displacement movement such as Hop,Leap and Gallop(P<0.01).And there were also significant differences in the control actions of the ball and other objects including Stationary Dribble,Overhand Throw and Underhand Roll.Conclusion:1.Light gymnastics can promote the gross motor development of young children aged 5-6.Children,s scores in displacement movement and object control are improved.Ball gymnastics and bell gymnastics can improve children’s displacement and object control ability.2.Kindergarten daily physical activities can have a certain impact on children’s gross motor development,but the impact is small,and can’t not well promote the gross motor development level of children.3.Compared with the bell group,the ball group can better promote the development of the object control ability of children aged 5-6.The effect of the action like children’s Stationary Dribble,Catch and Underhand Roll is especially significant.Compared with the bell gymnastics,the ball gymnastics can improve children’s object control ability specifically.

  • 【网络出版投稿人】 南京师范大学
  • 【分类号】G613.7
  • 【被引频次】1
  • 【下载频次】193
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