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俄罗斯精神道德教育研究

【作者】 许适琳

【导师】 于伟;

【作者基本信息】 东北师范大学, 教育博士(专业学位), 2019, 博士

【摘要】 二十世纪90年代东欧剧变,苏联宣告解体,世界政治格局发生重大变化。俄罗斯作为前苏联解体后的最重要继承者在政治、经济、文化等各领域面临着艰难的时代转型。在教育领域俄罗斯取消了各级学校的思想政治教育,人民的精神道德“价值真空”现象旋即出现。与此同时,各种思潮所秉持的价值观一同涌入俄罗斯的意识形态领域,欲使自己成为当下俄罗斯人精神道德的价值评判标准,致使“价值真空”迅速转换为“价值冲突”。多元的价值评判标准并没有使俄罗斯人的选择夙愿实现“多元化”,反而使俄罗斯人心涣散、国家与民众莫衷一是,甚至使国家和民族走向了再次“解体”的危难边缘。千年俄罗斯“怎么了?”又该“怎么办?”成为俄罗斯人必须面对并深思的问题。1999年12月30日,即新千年的前夜,普京掷地有声的给出了最终答案——“俄罗斯新思想”,“俄罗斯新思想是一个合成体,它把全人类的共同的价值观与俄罗斯经过时间考验的传统价值观,尤其是与经过20世纪波澜壮阔的一百年检查的价值观有机地结合在一起......它使俄罗斯成为强大国家,实现有效经济的前提和保障”。“俄罗斯新思想”为新千年俄罗斯国家发展指明了方向,也为当下俄罗斯实施精神道德教育指明了方向。经过多年探索,2009年俄罗斯正式出台《俄罗斯公民精神道德发展及德育构想》(?Концепциядуховно-нравственногоразвитияивоспитанияличностигражданина?)。其中明确提出了“精神道德教育”(духовно-нравственноевоспитание)这一当代俄罗斯“德育”核心概念,即“使受教育者接受并掌握基本民族价值,掌握全人类共同价值,掌握俄罗斯多民族文化、精神与道德价值的教育组织过程”。截止目前,俄罗斯“精神道德教育”已经贯彻落实到了俄罗斯学校教育实践层面,尤其是小学教育阶段。俄罗斯通过多年的实践,“精神道德教育”取得了积极的进展,得到了社会各界的认同。俄罗斯“精神道德教育”的提出有其复杂的时代背景,其产生于俄罗斯生死存亡的世纪转型时期。具体而言其产生于:俄罗斯国家政治体制由自由民主政治体制向主权民主政治体制转型时期;经济模式由新自由市场经济模式向社会市场经济模式转型时期;意识形态由西方自由主义价值观向俄罗斯传统民族价值观转型时期。一言以蔽之,“精神道德教育”是俄罗斯政治、经济、文化等领域从“西方自由”向“俄罗斯可控”转变的时代必然产物。俄罗斯“精神道德教育”有其独特的文化内涵,这种文化内涵是俄罗斯式的人文精神与伦理道德。俄罗斯式的“精神”内涵,即“精神”所指、“精神”实在、“精神”教化,有别于黑格尔的“绝对精神”认知,也不同于马克思的“社会意识”阐释,具有强烈的“彼岸”意义,被赋予了俄罗斯语境下较为浓厚的神秘主义色彩;俄罗斯的“道德”内涵,即“道德”结构、“道德”基础不同于西方对“道德”的架构,也不同于东方对“道德”的理解,而独具俄罗斯式的特点,它来源于世俗伦理和宗教伦理的矛盾统一,是人性之善和上帝之善的矛盾统一。俄罗斯“精神道德教育”有其多元化的思想根源,其依循于俄罗斯多民族人民所基本认同的价值取向、民族精神、宗教文化和哲学思想。具体而言,其主要来源于四个方面:俄罗斯永恒的价值取向争论——“斯拉夫派”与“西方派”的思想碰撞;俄罗斯传统民族精神——“村社意识”;俄罗斯传统宗教文化——“东正教”和俄罗斯经典哲学思想——索洛维约夫的“万物统一”。这些思想、意识、精神此消彼长而又彼此交葛,都在当代俄罗斯的“精神道德教育”中投射出自身的倩影。俄罗斯“精神道德教育”的发展历程与当代俄罗斯领导人的政治底色及治国理念息息相关。其发展历程可划分为四个阶段:戈尔巴乔夫时期的意识形态转型与宗教重返学校阶段(1985年—1991年);叶利钦时期的宗教复兴与东正教文化自主尝试阶段(1991年—2000年);普京时期的千年更迭与德育“新思想”阶段(2000年—2008年);梅普组合时期的民族德育典范与精神道德教育定型阶段(2008年—目前)。上述四个阶段相互衔接,在差异化中又有相同的特征。俄罗斯“精神道德教育”的实施路径主要是通过学校教育这一主渠道贯彻的。按照学校课程教育维度可以将其划分为直接德育课程、间接德育课程、德育活动课程三种类型。以小学阶段为例,直接德育课程是指所开设的联邦必修课程“宗教文化与世俗伦理基础”;间接德育课程是指在课程的任务目标中发挥精神道德教育的功能与影响的其它课程,如:“俄罗斯语言”、“文学讲读”、“数学”、“周围的世界”等;德育活动课程是指在直接德育课程和间接德育课程之外,与学科课程并列、互补,相互渗透的通过课外或校外活动、展演、竞赛等多种形式展现出来的德育类课程。俄罗斯“精神道德教育”课程的发展特点是由单一的精神道德直接课程教学向全方位的精神道德教育转变,由单一的课堂教学向课内与课外教学相结合的场景转变。倡导传统民族精神与核心价值观在民族兴衰、国家存亡的问题上有着重大意义,当今世界各民族都在全球化这一时代背景下提出和倡导本民族所认同的价值观。当代俄罗斯“精神道德教育”的提出与实施,既为其本民族寻找到了精神道德的家园,也为世界其它国家与民族在如何树立具有自身特点、符合自身传统、促进自身发展的道路上提供了参考和借鉴。

【Abstract】 In 1990 s,drastic changes occurred in Eastern Europe.The Soviet Union collapsed,which was the first socialist country that stood in the world for more than 70 years,and the world political structure changed dramatically.Russia,as the most important successor after the disintegration of the former Soviet Union,faced a difficult transition in the political,economic,and cultural fields.In the field of education,Russia abolished ideological and political education at all levels of schools,and the phenomenon of the people’s “values vacuum” on spirit and moral emerged.At the same time,the values held by various ideological trends poured into the ideology fields of Russia,and they want to become the value judging standard of the current Russian spirit and moral,which caused the “values vacuum” turn into “values conflict” quickly.The pluralistic value evaluation criteria did not make the Russians’ choices “diversified”.Instead,the Russians were distracted,the country and the people were inconsistent,and even the country and the nation went to the edge of the “disintegration” again.What happened to Russia with a thousand years’ history? What to do became a problem that Russians must face and ponder.On December 30,1999,the eve of the new millennium,Putin gave the final answer,that is,“Russian new thoughts”.“Russian new thoughts”is composite,whichcombine the universal values of all mankind with Russians’ traditional values that tested by time,especially in combination with the values examined in the magnificent 100 years in the 20 th century...it is the premise and guarantee for Russia to become a powerful country and achieve an effective economy.”“Russian new thoughts” points out the direction for the development of Russia in thestateof new millennium,and also points out the direction for the current implementation of spirit and moral education in Russia.After years of exploration by the Russian government and the community,Russia officially promulgated Russian Citizen’s Spirit and Moral Development and Concept of Moral Education(?Концепция духовно-нравственного развития и воспитания личности гражданина?)in 2009.It explicitly puts forward the “spirit and moral education”(духовно-нравственное воспитание),the core concept of Russian contemporary “moral education”,that is,“to enable the educated to accept and master the basic national values,master thevalues of all mankind,master the Russian multi-ethnic culture,spirit and the educational organization process of moral values.” So far,Russian “spirit and moral education” has been implemented to the level of Russian schools’ education practice,especially the stage of Russian primary education.Russia has made positive progress through years of “spirit and moral education” practice,and has gained recognition from the community.The presentation of Russian “spirit and moral education” has its complicated background of the times,which originated from the century transition period of Russia’s life and death.Specifically,it arises from the transition period from the liberal democratic political system to the sovereign democratic political system in Russia;the transition period from the neo-liberal market economy model to the social market economy model;the transition period of ideology from Western liberal values to Russian traditional national values.In a nutshell,Russian “spirit and moral education” is an era product that has changed from “liberal” in the West to “controllable” in Russia.Russian “spirit and moral education” has its own unique cultural connotation.This cultural connotation is a Russian-style humanistic spirit and ethics.The Russian-style "spirit" connotation,that is,the “spirit” signified,the “spirit” realism,the “spirit” education,is different from Hegel’s “absolute spirit” cognition,and is different from Marx’s “social consciousness” interpretation,which is self-contained.Russian “moral” connotation,that is,the “moral” structure,and the “moral” foundation,is different from the Western structure of “moral”,and is different from the Eastern understanding of “moral”,which has unique Russian style.Russian“spirit and moral education” has its own unique ideological roots,which follows the value orientation,national spirit,religious culture and philosophical thinking that the Russian multi-ethnic people basically agree with.Specifically,it comes from the following four aspects: Russian eternal value orientation debate: the collision of the “Slavic” and “Western” ideas;Russian traditional national spirit:“village community consciousness”;Russian traditional religious culture:“Orthodox” and Russian classical philosophical thinking: Solovyov’s “unification of all things”.The development of Russian“spirit and moral education” is closely related to the political background and the concept of governance of contemporary Russian leaders.Its development process is in four stages: the ideological transformation of Gorbachev and the return of religion to the school(1985-1991);the religious revival of Yeltsin and the autonomous attempt of Orthodox culture(1991-2000);the millennial change of Putin and the “New Thoughts” stage of moral education(2000-2008);the model of national moral education and the stage of spirit and moral education during the period of Medvedev and Putin’s combination(2008-present).The above four stages are connected to each other and have the same characteristics in the differentiation.The implementation path of Russian“spirit and moral education” is mainly implemented through the main channel of school education.According to the school curriculum education dimension,it can be divided into three types: direct moral education curriculum,indirect moral education curriculum and moral education activity curriculum.Taking the primary school stage as an example,the direct moral education curriculum refers to the federally required course “Religious Culture and Secular Ethics Foundation”;the indirect moral education curriculum refers to other courses that exert the function and influence of spirit and moral education in the mission objectives of the curriculum,such as “Russian Language”,“Literary Reading”,“Mathematics”,“Surrounding World”,etc.;the moral education activity curriculum refers to courses that are displayed in a variety of forms,such as extracurricular or extracurricular activities,performances,competitions,etc.,in addition to the direct moral education curriculum and the indirect moral education curriculum.The development of the Russian “spirit andmoral education” curriculum is characterized by the transformation froma single spirit and moral direct curriculum to a full range of spirit and moral education,from a single classroom teaching to a combination of in-class and extra-curricular teaching.Advocating the national spirit and core values is of great significance in the rise and fall of the nation and the survival of the country.All nations in the world today propose and advocate the values that their nation approves in the context of globalization.The presentation and implementation of contemporary Russian “spirit and moral education” not only provides a spirit and moral home for her own people,but also provides reference for other countries and nations in the world to create paths that havetheir own characteristics,conform to their own traditions,and promote their own development.

  • 【网络出版投稿人】 东北师范大学
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