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我国青少年校外体育培训机构治理问题研究

【作者】 包长春

【导师】 姜立嘉;

【作者基本信息】 东北师范大学, 体育教育训练学, 2019, 博士

【摘要】 置于《健康中国2030规划纲要》和体育强国背景下的青少年校外体育培训机构,具有持续、广泛、深厚的经济效益和社会价值。作为竞技体育和学校体育之外、社会体育系统中的重要组成部分,理应得到有效的重视和治理。改革开放以来,我国青少年校外体育培训的治理取得长足的进步,但就发展的规范性和持久性而言,仍存在着诸多的困境。因此,本文的研究价值和目标主要是在现有研究基础上,着眼于最突出、最迫切的体育培训机构治理困境,诊断困境的内部根源与制度逻辑,并在审慎比较和反思治理经验与教训的基础上,为提高现有治理能力和完善治理体制机制,提出并构建系统性的改进举措与治理修复方案。有鉴于此,本文运用包括需求层次理论、市场失灵理论、新公共管理理论、系统管理理论以及治理理论在内的诸种重要理论资源;运用问卷调查、专家访谈、比较分析、文本分析、SWOT计量统计模型等多种方法,围绕青少年校外体育培训机构治理的“治理现状—治理困境—治理症结—治理反思—治理改革”的问题思维与逻辑线索,通过构建综合治理方案,化解培训机构的利益冲突和无序发展,揭示使青少年校外体育培训健康、持续、规范发展的基本规律,继而基于我国体育发展的“制度优越性”来构建我国青少年校外培训的综合治理方案。通过本文的研究分析,形成如下几点结论:第一、我国校外体育培训市场整体集中度低,缺乏区域性领军品牌,业态模式较为单一;较大的机构经营模式以直营+租赁+网点拓展模式为主,较小的机构基本以运动战的形式运营,目标群体集中于中小学生,主要通过广告、社交媒体、人群扩散等方式传播和招生,消费市场供不应求,饱和度较低;大部分机构证照不齐全,部分机构仅仅有工商营业执照,企业登记与信息联网仅限于较大的机构,机构与政府开展的合作相对较少;教练员训练队伍整体质量偏低,兼职比例较高,以高校体育专业在校学生和中小学体育教师为主,对教学能力、道德品行等综合素质较高的全职教练需求较大。第二、当前我国青少年校外体育培训机构虽然自改革开放至今有了长足的发展进步,但依旧存在如下几点困境。在治理客体方面,存在体育培训要素缺失、分化严重,体育培训产业结构单一、基础脆弱,体育培训机构野蛮生长、无序竞比,体育培训业态自律废弛、抗法牟利等问题。治理主体方面,政府对培训机构的执法监管和帮扶也存在一系列困境,如政府监管规范缺乏系统立法、法律建设薄弱,政府监管组织缺乏职能整合、权责关系杂乱,政府监管过程缺乏外部参与、政策实效较低等。第三、导致治理困境出现的原因有如下三点:行业机构的市场自律意识与行为存在价值性偏差,作为权力责任主体的政府治理能力存在系统性缺失,行政执法组织间的部门分工存在功能性错配。第四、鉴于培训机构治理存在的困境及其成因,基于我国政府行政治理体制改革与市场化转型的国情实际。本文建议,应逐渐替代和改革现阶段政府单一化行政监管的固有治理逻辑,通过明晰体育治理理念的适用性与有效性,科学构建青少年校外体育培训机构治理主体间的分工体系,完善青少年校外体育培训机构的治理机制,具体包括:(1)从提高政府的组织协同与规划引导能力、促进市场的自律管理与行业整合能力、涵化社会的评估认证与沟通服务能力这三方面入手,提高和完善政府对校外体育培训机构的治理能力。(2)活化市场竞争下的内生发展机制,基于机构自律原则推进培训市场与培训机构的内涵式发展;基于社会参与模式,组建多元专业的社会中间组织降低施策成本,让社会作为青少年校外体育训练现代治理模式的重要载体,在机构和政府中扮演桥梁和沟通的角色,从而解决信息不对称及逆向道德风险带来的治理成本问题;基于公共部门权威,组建超部门的专业规划指导机构推进宏观引导,政府不再细致入微地管理具体经营事务,而是依托该部门,依法履行自身职能,在青少年校外体育训练事业的战略规划、政策开展、资源投入、技术引入、机构扶持、社会服务等方面,发挥其应有的引导性功能,从而更加有效地推进青少年校外体育训练事业的发展。

【Abstract】 Under the background of the "Healthy China 2030 Planning Outline" and pursuing for realizing sports superpowers,the youth off-campus sports training institutions have sustained,extensive and profound economic and social values.As an important part of the social sports system other than competitive sports and school sports,it should be effectively valued and governed.Since the reform and opening up,the governance of off-campus sports training in China has made great progress,but in terms of normative and persistent development,there are still many predicaments.There,fore,it is supposed that value and goal of this paper is to focus on the most prominent and urgent sports training institutions’ governance dilemma,to diagnose the internal roots and institutional logic of the dilemma,and to carefully compare and reflect on the governance experience and lessons.On the basis of this,this paper would committed to improve the existing governance capacity and governance system,propose and build systematic improvement measures and governance and restoration programs.In view of this,this paper uses various theoretical resources including demand hierarchy theory,market failure theory,new public management theory,system management theory and governance theory;using questionnaires,expert interviews,field surveys,comparative analysis,SWOT measurement statistical model as well as other methods,closely centre on the "governance status-governance dilemma-governance crux-governance reflection-governance reform" problem thinking and logical clues of youth off-campus sports training institutions governance,through the establishment of comprehensive governance programs,to resolve training institutions The conflict of interest and disorderly development issues reveal the basic laws of healthy,sustainable and standardized development of youth off-campus sports training,and then based on the "institutional superiority" of China’s sports development to build a comprehensive treatment plan to break through the status of off-campus training of Chinese youth of governance.Through the research and analysis of this paper,the following conclusions are formed as follows:First,the total situation of China’s off-campus sports training market is low in industry concentration,lacking regional leading brands.The business model of that is relatively simple;Then,the target group is concentrated in primary and middle school students,mainly through advertising,social media,crowd diffusion and other means of dissemination and enrollment.The consumer market is in short supply,while,most institutions license is not complete accompanied with the most only have business license,Additionally,business registration and information networking is basically limited to larger organizations.The cooperation between the organization and the government is relatively rare.The overall quality of the coach training team is low,and the proportion of part-time work is relatively high.Most of them are students of college sports majors.They have the ability to teach and moral conduct.The demand for full-time coaches with higher comprehensive quality is greater;Second,although the current outdoor sports training institutions for youths in China have made great progress and progress since the reform and opening up,they still have the following difficulties.In terms of governance objects,there are some lack of physical training elements and serious differentiation such as that sports training industry has a single structure and a weak foundation;sports training institutions are barbaric growth,disorderly competition;sports training industry self-discipline,anti-law as well as profit-making included.The main body of governance—the government’s law enforcement supervision and assistance to training institutions also has a series of dilemmas.For example,government regulations lack systematic legislation and weak legal construction;government regulatory organizations lack functional integration,and powers and responsibilities are disordered;Finally,government supervision process lacks external participation and the series of some policy effectiveness derived from the former is low.Thirdly,there are three reasons for the emergence of governance dilemma: the market self-discipline awareness and behaviors of institutions is confronted with value deviation,the government governance ability as the main body of power responsibility is systematically missing,and the division of labor between administrative law enforcement organizations has functionality.mismatch.Fourth,in view of the predicaments of the governance of training institutions and its causes,this paper proposes based on the actual situation of China’s government administrative governance system reform and market transformation.The inherent governance logic of the government’s singular administrative supervision should be gradually replaced and reformed.By clarifying the applicability and effectiveness of the concept of sports governance,scientifically constructing a division of labor between the main bodies of juvenile off-campus sports training institutions,and improving the governance mechanism of juvenile off-campus sports training institutions.The details include:(1)Starting from improving the government’s organizational coordination and planning and guiding capabilities,promoting the market’s self-discipline management and industry integration capabilities,and accumulating the society’s assessment,certification and communication service capabilities.(2)Activate the endogenous development mechanism under market competition,promoting the connotative development of the training market and training institutions based on the principle of institutional self-discipline;build a multi-disciplinary social intermediary organization to reduce the cost of policy based on the social participation model.And the society as animportant composition of youth off-campus sports governance model,playing a role of bridge and communication in institutions and governments,thus solving the problem of governance costs brought about by information asymmetry and reverse moral hazard.Finally,based on the authority of the public sector,it is better to set up a professional planning and guiding organization for super-sectors to promote macroeconomics guide,and the government no longer nuances the management of specific business affairs,but rather relies on the department to perform its functions according to law,in the strategic planning,policy development,resource input,technology introduction,institutional support,social services,etc.Generally,it could be probable that we follow those advice so as to more effectively promote the development of youth off-campus sports training.

  • 【网络出版投稿人】 东北师范大学
  • 【分类号】G633.96
  • 【被引频次】19
  • 【下载频次】1214
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