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名篇教学课例的教师PCK研究 ——以人教版必修一《鸿门宴》为例

【作者】 王飞霞

【导师】 荣维东;

【作者基本信息】 西南大学, 课程与教学论, 2019, 硕士

【副题名】以人教版必修一《鸿门宴》为例

【摘要】 我国的教师培养存在这样一种奇怪的默认:学科知识、教育科学知识和普通文化知识分开教学,却默认掌握了这些知识的教师能够自如地运用到教学过程中。教师缺乏实践方法上的指导,只好凭着经验进行教学设计和教学反思,因此教师的专业发展存在很大的盲目性、自发性和无序性。另一方面,有经验的教师只是展现成品课例,对新手教师的指导也是对自身经验的固定输出,新教师很难将其顺利化为己用。究其根本,每个教师的经验积累和面对的教学实际不同,但是获得的方法指导却不具有实践性和操作性。为了解决这些实际问题,有学者将PCK理论引入我国的教育研究领域。PCK是1985年美国教育家舒尔曼(Shulman)在分析教师资格证考试的试题时候提出的一个理论。他发现1875和1985年走向了两个极端:1875年非常强调学科知识,教学理论与实践知识所占比例却极小;1985年侧重考查一般性的教学知识,学科知识却很少。舒尔曼认为教师培养应该兼顾学科知识和教学知识之间的有机融合,找到两者相交的融合点和平衡点,进一步指出学科知识和教学知识应该融合起来,融合之后形成的知识,即“Pedagogical Content Knowledge”,简称PCK。尽管研究者众多,但是PCK理论指导实践的研究深度还远远不够,进入到语文学科领域的更是不多。为了使PCK这个先进的理论工具更好地发挥其作用,也为了给教师培养与自我提升提供多样化途径,笔者选取PCK理论为研究工具,以《鸿门宴》为研究对象,作为PCK指导教师成长的样例抛砖引玉,希望能够引来更多有学识有见地的研究者,改善教师培养领域的情况。本文以PCK理论为研究工具,以《鸿门宴》为研究对象,全文共分为五章:第一章为绪论,主要是介绍本研究的研究背景、意义和方法。首先从研究的现实背景、改革需求背景和理论背景三个方面论述了本研究论题的产生背景;然后论述了研究的主要内容、研究的理论意义和实际意义,以及本研究将采用的研究方法。第二章主要是对PCK(Pedagogical Content Knowledge)理论发展简史的梳理和对其内涵的深层挖掘解析。首先,将PCK发展分为了四个阶段:静态内涵时期,静态向动态内涵转化时期,理论深化多样并进入测量和课堂运用领域时期,以及落实到实践层面时期。然后,对PCK的理论本质和组成元素进行了界定:从前一节简史的梳理来看,无论PCK研究者如何定义,其内涵都离不开学生情况、教学情境、教学策略知识、学科知识和教育科学知识等这几个主体元素。再次,提纯出了以格罗斯曼为代表的转化模型、以科克伦为代表的整合模型、以威尔为代表的金字塔层级嵌套模型,对PCK各元素之间的存在、转化关系进行了模型图描绘。还提炼出了PCK理论的理论性和实践性特征。最后,本章末尾对国内PCK的研究现状进行了梳理,搜集了上百篇文献,归纳总结出总要有综述述评类研究、教育影响类研究、实证性研究三大类型。第三章主要是对《鸿》的价值和地位进行论述。首先,对《鸿》的史学价值、文学价值和教学价值进行了论述,重点解析了其文学史上的崇高地位;然后梳理了研究者们对它的文本解读情况,史学角度主要对项、刘二人的成败原因解读;文学角度对高超的人物刻画技巧,扣人心弦的情节解读,出神入化的艺术手法分析,文章主题多样化的讨论。最后一节,对《鸿》的教材选录情况进行介绍,选取了人教版、苏教版、沪教版、粤教版的教材,凸显出《鸿》在语文教材中的地位。第四章主要是对专家型教师、骨干教师、新手教师三种身份的教师执教《鸿》一文的课例梳理,每个身份各选取不少于10份课例进行教学目标、教学方法、教学内容等指标的统计,形成了直观清晰的图表。并且每个身份的教师都选取了一个典型课例进行了解析。在本章末尾还进行了数据的汇总,概括了各个身份教师的PCK显著特征。第五章为教学建议和教学样例。基于笔者自身的新手教师身份,再结合PCK发展的路径和渠道,综合前几部分得到的PCK基础知识,提出了笔者对《鸿》一文的教学建议,并形成了教学样例。最后再提出了对教学样例的迁移建议和教师发展PCK的途径建议。

【Abstract】 There is a strange understanding in the cultivation of teachers in China: subject knowledge,educational science knowledge and general cultural knowledge are taught separately,but teachers who have mastered this knowledge by default can use it freely in the teaching process.On the one hand,because of lack the guidance of practical methods,teachers have to rely on experience for teaching design,teaching reflection.Teachers’ professional development has great blindness,spontaneity and disorder.On the other hand,experienced teachers only show the course examples,and the guidance to the novice teachers is also a fixed output of their own experience.As a result,it is difficult for new teachers to use them as their own.The reason is that each teacher’s experience accumulation is different from the actual teaching,so the method guidance is not practical and operational.In order to solve these practical problems,some scholars have introduced PCK theory into the field of education research in China.PCK theory was put forward by American educator Shulman in 1985 when he analyzed the test questions of the teacher qualification exam.He found that the teacher qualification exam went to two extremes in 1875 and 1975.In 1875,it mainly emphasized the subject knowledge and ignored teaching theory and practical knowledge.In 1985,the general teaching knowledge was emphasized,but the subject knowledge was neglected.Shulman believes that teacher’ training should organically integrate subject knowledge and teaching knowledge,and find the fusion point and balance point of the intersection of them.The knowledge formed after the integration is “Pedagogical Content Knowledge”,referred to as PCK.Despite the large number of researchers,the depth of research on PCK theory-guided practice is far from enough,especial the field of Chinese language.In order to make up for this gap,the author regards PCK theory as the research tool,and takes Banquet At Hongmen as the research object.As a sample of PCK theory to guide the development of teachers,the author hope to attract more knowledgeable researchers and improve the field of teacher training.This paper consists of five chapters.Chapter one is the introduction,which mainly introduces the background,significance and methods of this research.Firstly,the background of the research is discussed from the three aspects,the realistic background,the reform demand and the theoretical background.Then the main content of the research,the theoretical significance and practical significance of the research,and the research methods are discussed.Chapter two is mainly about the brief history of the development of PCK theory and the deep analysis of its connotation.First of all,there are four stages in the development of PCK theory: the period of static connotation,the period of static to dynamic connotation,the deepening of theory and the period of measurement and classroom application,and the period of implementation into the practical teaching.Then,the theoretical essence and constituent elements of PCK are defined.According to the above described,no matter how the PCK researchers define them,their connotations are inseparable from the main elements of student situation,teaching situation,teaching strategy knowledge,subject knowledge and educational science knowledge.Furthermore,a transformation model represented by Gross,an integration model represented by Cochran,and a pyramid-level nested model represented by Will are proposed.And the model diagram is drawn about the existence and transformation relationship between the elements of PCK.It also extracts theoretical and practical characteristics of the theory.At the end of this chapter,the domestic PCK research is reviewed.It is concluded that there are three main types of review,review research,educational influence research and empirical research.Chapter three mainly discusses the value and status of Banquet At Hongmen.First of all,the author discusses the historical value,literary value and teaching value of Banquet At Hongmen,focusing on the sublime status of his literary history.Then he sorts out the textual interpretation of the researchers.It mainly explains the reasons for the success and failure of Xiang and Liu from historiography perspective;From the literary perspective,it mainly analyzes the superb character characterization techniques,the exciting interpretation of the plot,the artistic analysis of the supernatural,and the diversified themes.In the last section of this chapter,the author introduces the selection of the textbooks of Banquet At Hongmen.The People’s Education Edition,the Jiangsu Education Edition,the Shanghai Education Edition,and the Guangdong Education Edition are selected,highlighting the status of Banquet At Hongmen in the Chinese textbooks.Chapter four is mainly to sort out the teaching examples of the expert teacher,the backbone teacher and the novice teacher.No less than 10 lessons are selected of each identity teacher for the statistics of teaching objectives,teaching methods,teaching content and other indicators,forming an intuitive and clear chart.And a typical lesson of each identity teacher has selected for analysis.At the end of this chapter,a summary of the data is also presented,summarizing the prominent features of PCK for each identity teacher.Chapter five is conclusion,mainly giving the teaching suggestions and teaching examples.Based on the author’s own novice teacher status,combined with the channel of PCK development and basic knowledge of PCK obtained in the previous sections,the author puts forward the teaching suggestions on Banquet At Hongmen and some teaching examples are presented.

【关键词】 学科教学知识PCK鸿门宴课例
【Key words】 Pedagogical Content KnowledgePCKBanquet At HongmenLessons
  • 【网络出版投稿人】 西南大学
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