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主被动微信朋友圈使用对成年初显期个体抑郁的影响:依恋安全感的中介作用

【作者】 周威

【导师】 陈旭;

【作者基本信息】 西南大学, 发展与教育心理学, 2019, 硕士

【摘要】 近20年来,一个特殊的年龄阶段18-25岁,备受发展心理学研究者所关注,它被称之为“成年初显期”。它既不是青春期,也不等于完全的成年期,处于这个年龄阶段的个体,要比其他年龄段的个体面临更多,诸如离开父母进入大学或者职场;建立浪漫关系以及探索事业等抉择和转变。国内外的研究者发现,处于这一年龄阶段的个体被发现特别容易诊断出抑郁而且近年来还呈现快速增长的趋势。由于互联网的飞速发展和智能机的普及,将面对面的人际交往转向在线的社交网站(social networking sits,SNS)或社交媒体(social media,SM),越来越多的研究者将社交网站或者社交媒体使用与用户的抑郁情绪联系起来,并开展了丰富的研究,但围绕这一主题的研究结果不一致。有研究者认为,结果的不一致可能与不同的社交网站使用行为有关。研究者根据个体在社交网站上使用行为的性质把社交网站使用行为分为主动性使用和被动性使用,发现在社交网站上的主动性的使用,能对使用者产生积极的效应,相反,被动性使用往往跟消极的结果相联系。也有一些研究者认为,社交网站对抑郁的影响不是直接影响,可能存在其他一些变量。对于初显期成人而言,建立亲密关系是他们核心的的发展任务之一。安全的依恋关系是抑郁发展的重要保护性因素,并且,丰富的依恋理论不仅能解释抑郁的形成发展机制,而且提供了有效的干预和治疗方法,遗憾的是,少有研究探究了社交网站的使用对个体依恋安全感的影响,及其在社交网站使用中的作用。此外,已有的相关研究中缺乏实验室的干预研究,因此其结果难以确定因果关系,并且对考察变量所使用的回顾性自陈问卷也可能存在回忆偏差,所以一些研究者提议使用更理想的研究设计和测量方法,比如,临床领域的干预研究设计和纵向生态瞬时法(EMA)相结合的方法随着智能手机的普及得以广泛的应用。本研究以微信朋友圈为平台,把微信朋友圈使用行为从性质上分为主动使用和被动使用,采用横断研究和纵向干预追踪研究结合的方法,探索依恋安全感在主被动使用微信朋友圈影响抑郁中的作用。研究一,采用横断研究设计,用结构方程的方法,探讨依恋安全感在主被动微信朋友圈使用和抑郁中的中介作用。研究二,进一步使用采用干预研究设计,并采用纵向生态评瞬时评估的方法(EMA),80名被试被随机分为被动组和主动组,被动组要求在为期14天的实验中,只能被动的使用微信朋友圈,主动组则是主动的使用。本研究探讨了两种不同的微信朋友圈的使用行为对个体依恋安全感和抑郁的不同影响,以及依恋安全感在两种不同使用行为和抑郁中的中介作用。研究结果发现,被动性的微信朋友圈使用能降低依恋安全感,提高了依恋焦虑和抑郁水平。而与亲密关系相关的主动性微信朋友圈的使用行为,能提高依恋安全感,降低抑郁水平。具体结果包括。(1)主动性的微信朋友圈使用行为能显著的负向的预测个体的抑郁水平,不能预测依恋焦虑和依恋回避。(2)被动性的微信朋友圈使用行为能显著的正向的预测个体的抑郁水平和依恋焦虑,不能预测依恋回避。依恋焦虑在被动性微信朋友圈使用行为和抑郁中起中介作用。(3)干预实验中,与亲密关系相关的主动性微信朋友圈使用行为能显著提高个体的状态性依恋安全感,降低依恋焦虑水平,抑郁情绪以及总体的抑郁水平,并且状态性的依恋安全感,在这种特殊的主动性行为和抑郁情绪中起部分的中介作用。(4)干预实验中,被动性的使用行为能显著降低个体的状态性依恋安全感,提高依恋焦虑水平,抑郁情绪以及总体的抑郁水平,并且状态性的依恋安全感,在这种被动的使用行为和抑郁情绪中起部分的中介作用。最后,本文对上述研究结果与局限性进行了深入讨论,并对未来的研究方向提出了建设性意见。本研究不仅首次将依恋安全感纳入其中,为理解两种不同的社交网站使用如何影响抑郁的形成提供了新的解释路径,而且还进一步使用干预研究设计和EMA相结合的方法,比较了主动和被动微信朋友圈的使用两种不同的行为干预,对个体依恋安全感和抑郁的影响,不仅为改善依恋安全感的研究和实践具有潜在的启发意义,更为个体在社交网站使用过程中,规避抑郁的形成提供了有效的干预指导。

【Abstract】 In the past 20 years,a special age group,18-25 years old,has attracted the attention of developmental psychologists.It is called “Emerging adulthood ".It is neither puberty nor complete adulthood.Individuals at this age are faced with more choices than individuals of other ages,such as leaving their parents to enter a university or workplace;establishing romantic relationships and exploring career choices and transformations.Researchers at home and abroad have found that individuals at this age are particularly susceptible to depression and have shown a rapid growth trend in recent years.Due to the rapid development of the Internet and the poPUlarity of smart phones,face-to-face interactions are turned to online social networking(SNS)or social media(SM).As a result,more and more researchers have linked social networking sites or social media usage to the user’s depression and conducted extensive research,but the results of the research around this topic are not consistent.Some researchers believe that the inconsistency of the results may be related to the behavior of different social networking sites.For example,social networking usage behaviors are first classified into active use and passive use based on the nature of individual use behavior on social networking sites.Along the way,many researchers have found that the use of initiative on social networking sites can have a positive effect on users.Conversely,passive use is often associated with negative results.Moreover,some researchers believe that the impact of social networking sites on depression is not directly related,and there may be other variables.For beginners,establishing intimacy is one of their core development tasks.A safe attachment relationship is a protective factor for the development of depression.Moreover,attachment theory not only provides a framework for understanding the formation of depression,but also provides effective interventions and treatments.Unfortunately,few studies have explored the impact of the use of social networking sites on individual attachment security and its mediating role between social networking sites use and depression.In addition,there is a lack of laboratory intervention studies in the relevant research,so the results are difficult to determine the causal relationship,and the retrospective self-reported questionnaire used to examine the variables may also have recall bias,so some researchers propose to use more ideal research design and measurement methods,such as the combination of intervention design and verticalecological transient method(EMA)in clinical field,have been widely used with the popularity of smartphones.Based on the WeChat Moments,this study divides the use behavior of WeChat Moments into active use and passive use.It uses a combination of cross-cutting research and vertical intervention tracking research to exploring the role of attachment security between active/passive WeChat Moments use and depressionIn the first study,the use of cross-sectional research design,using large sample surveys,using structural equations to explore the mediating role of attachment security between active/passive WeChat Moments use and depression.In the second study,the intervention study design was used,and the longitudinal EMA evaluation method was used.80 subjects were randomly divided into the passive group and the active group.The passive group required the passive use of WeChat Moments in the 14-day experiment.The other group is active use.This study explored the different effects of the behavior of two different WeChat Moments use behaviors on individual attachment security and depression,and the mediating role of attachment security in two different behaviors and depression.The study found that the passive WeChat Moments use can reduce the attachment of state attachment and improve the level of attachment anxiety and depression.The active WeChat Moments use about intimacy can improve attachment security and reduce attachment anxiety.Specific results include.(1)The active WeChat Moments use can significantly predict the level of depression and cannot predict attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance.(2)Passive WeChat Moments use behavior can significantly predict the individual’s depression level and attachment anxiety,and cannot predict attachment avoidance.Attachment anxiety plays a mediating role between depression and passive WeChat Moments use.(3)The active WeChat Moments use related to intimacy can significantly improve the individual’s state attachment security,reduce the level of attachment anxiety,depressive moon and overall depression,and state attachment security play part mediating role between this special active use behavior and depressive moon.(4)Passive use behavior can significantly reduce the individual’s state attachment security,improve attachment anxiety level,depressive mood and overall depression level,and state attachment attachment security also play mediating role between this passive use behavior and depressive moon.Finally,the paper makes an in-depth discussion on the above research results andlimitations,and PUts forward constructive opinions on the future research direction.This study not only incorporates attachment security for the first time,but also provides a new explanation for understanding how the use of two different social networking sites affects the formation of depression,and further uses the combination of interventional research design and EMA to compare initiative and The use of two different behavioral interventions in the passive WeChat Moments has the potential to inspire the research and practice of attachment security,and it is more instructive for individuals to use in social networking sites.The formation of depression provides an effective intervention guide.

  • 【网络出版投稿人】 西南大学
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