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青年家庭价值观测量及其对暴力态度的影响

【作者】 尹明

【导师】 陈红;

【作者基本信息】 西南大学, 应用心理学, 2019, 硕士

【摘要】 中国人“家”的意识具有核心价值的作用,爱家,顾家,护家已成为中国人价值观中的重要组成部分。家庭价值观(Familism Values)描述的是个体对家庭的强烈认同和依恋,结合前人文献和实践研究,本文将家庭价值观定义为个体与家庭、家庭成员的交互过程中形成的以为家庭成员着想,服务团结家人,对家庭忠诚为特征的价值体系。国外的研究表明,家庭对青年的健康发展具有保护性的作用,与抑郁、内外化问题、物质滥用等消极行为呈负相关,与高幸福感、学业成就和亲社会等积极行为正相关。相比于国外,目前国内却少有对家庭价值观进行探讨的研究。大量研究指出家庭和移情对于个体暴力相关行为有着重要的影响,家庭价值观可能通过移情对个体暴力态度产生影响。在测量方面,国外先后建构了西班牙裔家庭价值观量表(the Hispanic Familism Scale),态度家庭价值观量表(the Attitudinal Familism Scale)和墨西哥裔美国人文化价值观量表(the Mexican American Cultural Values Scale)等作为衡量家庭价值观的工具。国内杨国枢的家族主义量表主要测量的则是古代家族主义,国内对家庭价值观的测量主要依靠翻译国外工具,但文化的差异不容忽视。本研究从构建中国文化背景下的青年家庭价值观问卷出发,从内隐和外显的角度考察青年家庭价值观、移情和暴力态度三者之间的关系。研究一根据已有文献和开放式问卷的调查结果,初步形成了中国文化背景下的青年家庭价值观问卷,包括家庭义务自觉、家庭支持感知、家庭中心参照三个维度。严格按照问卷编制程序,经过项目分析、探索性因素分析和验证性因素分析编制出正式问卷,结果表明该问卷具有较好的信效度,符合心理测量学指标,可以作为中国青年家庭价值观的测量工具。研究二探讨了当代青年家庭价值观的现状和水平(N=1052)。研究发现,我国青年家庭价值观水平总体较高。在差异方面,探讨了在民族、性别、年级、居住地、家庭结构和是否为独生子女方面,青年家庭价值观总分与各分维度的差异。为证明青年家庭价值观通过移情对暴力态度产生影响,即移情在青年家庭价值观对暴力态度影响中起中介作用,研究三a借助自编青年家庭价值观量表、人际反应指数量表(IRI)、FMMU变态人格危险性评估问卷中的冲动倾向(VIO)分量表,从外显的角度探讨了青年家庭价值观、移情和暴力态度三者之间的关系。暴力态度的测量既可以用外显问卷测量,也可以用内隐实验进行测量,研究三b进一步运用内隐暴力态度IAT测量程序测量被试的内隐暴力态度,从内隐的角度探讨青年家庭价值观、移情和暴力态度三者之间的关系。本研究得到了以下结论:自编青年家庭价值观,包括家庭义务自觉、家庭支持感知、家庭中心参照三个维度,该问卷的信效度等心理测量学指标良好。中国青年的家庭价值观总体处于较高水平,从各分维度来看,家庭义务自觉维度大于家庭支持感知维度大于家庭中心参照。来自完整家庭的青年家庭价值观水平显著高于来自离异家庭的青年的家庭价值观。女生在家庭支持感知维度得分显著大于男生,家庭中心参照得分显著小于男生,独生子女青年家庭支持感知得分显著大于非独生子女,在家庭义务自觉得分则显著小于非独生子,家庭价值观总分和家义务自觉维度在性别和是否为独生子女上没有发现显著差异。民族、年级和城乡方面,家庭价值观总分和各分维度都没有发现显著差异。本文的数据表明,家庭结构会影响个体的家庭价值观水平。青年家庭价值观、移情与内、外显暴力态度两两相关,青年家庭价值观与移情显著正相关,与内、外显暴力态度显著负相关,移情与内、外显暴力态度显著负相关。青年家庭价值观对暴力态度的影响符合中介效应模型,移情在家庭价值观与暴力态度间起到中介的作用。家庭价值观对暴力态度有直接抑制的作用,同时又可以通过移情间接影响暴力态度。

【Abstract】 As the consciousness of “Family” palys the role of core value of Chinese,we know,Love the Family,Care the Family and Protect the Family has become an improtant part of the values of Chinese.Familism Values describes the individual’s strong identification and attachment to the family.Combining the previous research and practical method,this article defines youth familism values as a value system characterized by caring about the family members,serving family and absoulute loyalty to family forms in the interaction between the individual and the family.Foreign scholars have prove familism values cloud be a protective factor for the youth,It is negatively correlated with negative behaviors such as depression,internal and external problems,substance abuse,and positively correlated with positive behaviors such as high happiness,academic achievement,and prosociality.Unfortunately,there are few studies of familism values in China.Numerous studies have pointed out that family and empathy have an important impact on the individual violent attitudes,and familism values may influence individual violent attitudes through empathy.As for measurement,The Hispanic Familism Scale,the Attitudinal Familism Scale and the Mexican American Cultural Values Scale have been constructed abroad as a measure of familism values.In china,Yang Guoshu’s Familism Scale mainly measures ancient familyism.The domestic measurement of familism values mainly relies on the translation of foreign tools,but the cultural differences can’t be ignored.Our study explores the relationship between youth familism values,empathy and violent attitudes of implicit and explicit by building a youth familism values questionnaire in the context of Chinese culture.Based on the findings of the existing literature and the open questionnaire,Study 1initially formed a questionnaire on the youth familism values in the context of Chineseculture including three dimensions,family obligations,family support perception,and family center reference.Strictly follow the questionnaire preparation process,We have carried out the project analysis,exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis.And then we get a formal questionnaire,the questionnaire has good reliability and validity.it is in line with psychometric indicators and can be used as a measurement tool for Chinese youth familism values.Study 2 explores the status quo and level of contemporary youth familism values(N=1052).We found that the youth familism values in China are at a relatively high level.In terms of differences,the differences in the total scores of youth familism values and the dimensions of each sub-division are discussed in terms of ethnicity,gender,grade,place of residence,family structure and whether they are the only children.In order to prove that youth familism values have an impact on violent attitudes through empathy,that is,empathy plays a mediating role in the influence of youth familism values on violent attitudes.Study 3a explores the relationship between youth familism values,empathy and violent attitudes from the perspective of explicitness by means of the self-edited Youth Familism Values Scale,the Interpersonal Reactivity Index(IRI),and the VIO subscale in the FMMU Abnormal Personality Risk Factors Inventory.The measurement of violent attitudes can be measured by explicit questionnaire or implicit measurement.Study 3b further uses the implicit violent attitudes IAT measurement program to measure the implicit violent attitudes of the participants,and explore the youth familism values from the perspective of implicitness.This study gets the following conclusions,(1)Self-edited youth familism values,including three dimensions,family obligations,family support perception and family center reference.the questionnaire’s reliability and validity and other psychometric indicators are good.(2)The familism values of Chinese youth are generally at a relatively high level.From the perspective of each dimension,family obligations dimension is higher than the family support perception dimension,the family support perception dimension is higher than the family center reference.The level of youth familism values from intact families is significantly higher than the familism values of young people from divorced families.Female’s score of family support perception dimension are significantly larger than males,but samller in family center reference score.The only child’s family support perception score is significantly larger than the non-only child,but significantly smaller than the non-only child in the family obligation dimension.The total score offamilism values and family obligations score didn’t find significant differences in gender and whether they are the only child.No significant differences were found in intotal score of familism values and sub-dimensions in terms of nationality,grade and urban and rural areas.The data in this paper show that the family structure affects the individual’s familism values.(3)The youth familism values,empathy and internal and external violent attitudes are two-fold related.Youth familism values are significantly and positively related to empathy,and are significantly negatively correlated with internal and external violent attitudes.Empathy is significantly negatively correlated with internal and external violent attitudes.The influence of youth familism values on violent attitudes is consistent with the mediating effect model.Empathy plays an intermediary role between youth familism values and violent attitudes.youth familism values have a direct inhibitory effect on violent attitudes,while at the same time indirectly affecting violent attitudes through empathy.

  • 【网络出版投稿人】 西南大学
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