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泰国东北部小学生汉语擦音、塞擦音习得实验研究

【作者】 刘笑冬

【导师】 孙琳;

【作者基本信息】 西南大学, 语言学及应用语言学, 2019, 硕士

【摘要】 随着中泰两国在经济、文化、贸易等领域的紧密合作,泰国学习汉语的人数逐年增长。语音作为语言的物质外壳,是学习一门语言的重中之重。汉语与泰语都属于汉藏语系,在语音系统上存在一些共同点,有利于泰国学生掌握汉语,但二者之间也存在比较大的差异,导致泰国学生在学习汉语时常常会产生一些偏误,存在发音的难点。鉴于此,本文运用实验语音学的方法对泰东北小学生汉语擦音、塞擦音的习得情况进行分析研究,并与汉语母语者普通话擦音、塞擦音的发音进行对比分析,找出泰东北小学生汉语擦音、塞擦音的发音难点及偏误;同时结合感知辨认实验,验证其偏误产生的原因之一为感知辨认偏误;然后对其难点进行分类,并尝试探究其产生的原因;最后在此基础上提出相应的教学建议。全文共分为六部分:第一部分为绪论,主要阐述了选题的缘由、研究的意义、相关的理论基础及研究现状,并介绍了本文的主要研究内容与研究方法,同时简要介绍了汉泰语辅音系统。第二部分从实验语音学的角度出发,基于双音节词分别对泰东北二、四、六年级的24名小学生汉语普通话擦音进行声学实验分析,着重探讨语料中提取出的频谱重心、分散程度,并作出泰东北小学生的擦音格局,同时对比分析中泰两国发音人的擦音数据及格局,找出泰东北小学生汉语擦音习得的特点。第三部分基于双音节词分别对泰东北二、四、六年级的24名小学生汉语普通话塞擦音进行声学实验分析,着重探讨语料中提取出的GAP(闭塞段时长)、DOF(有声摩擦段)、频谱重心、分散程度。利用GAP(闭塞段时长)、DOF(有声摩擦段)、数据作出塞擦音时长格局图;利用频谱重心、分散程度作出塞擦音摩擦状态格局图;同时利用GAP(闭塞段时长)、DOF(有声摩擦段)、频谱重心、分散程度的比值,得出塞擦音的时长性质指数DI与摩擦性质指数FI,并作出塞擦音格局,同时对比分析中泰两国发音人的塞擦音时长格局、摩擦状态格局及塞擦音格局,找出泰东北小学生汉语塞擦音习得的特点。第四部分运用感知实验,采用感知辨认的实验方式,统计分析泰东北小学生汉语擦音、塞擦音的感知偏误分布情况,探讨感知对于泰东北小学生汉语擦音、塞擦音习得的影响,得出感知辨认偏误是泰东北小学生汉语擦音、塞擦音偏误产生的原因之一。第五部分结合二、三、四部分所得结论分析泰东北小学生汉语擦音、塞擦音习得过程中存在的难点及其成因,并就其难点提出相关教学建议。第六部分为结语。

【Abstract】 With the close cooperation between China and Thailand in the fields of economy,culture and trade,the number of people learning Mandarin in Thailand has increased year by year.As the material representation of language,the speech is the most important thing to learn a language.Both Mandarin and Thai belong to the Sino-Tibetan language family.There are some common characteristics in the phonetic system,which is conducive to Thai students learning Chinese.However,there are also great differences between that two languages,which often lead the Thai students having some errors in learning Mandarin and having difficulties in pronunciation.In view of this,this thesis uses the method of experimental phonetics to analyze the learning of Mandarin’s fricative and affricate in Northeast Thailand primary school students,and compares with Chinese native speakers’ fricative and affricate voices.Finding out the difficulties and errors of speaking Mandarin’s fricative and affricate in Northeast Thailand primary school students.At the same time,combined with the perception experiment,the thesis verifies that perception error is one of the reasons leading to the errors in learning Mandarin.Then it classifies difficulties and attempts to explore why that occurs.Finally,based on this,it proposes corresponding teaching suggestions.The full text is divided into six parts:The first part is the introduction,which mainly expounds on the reason of the topic,the significance of the research,the related theoretical basis and the research status.This part also introduces the main research contents and methodologies and a brief introduction to both Mandarin and Thai language consonants system.The second part based on the two-syllable words,this part carries out the acoustic experiments of Mandarin fricative,which were spoken by 24 Northeast Thai primary school students in the second,fourth and sixth grades,focusing on the center of gravity,dispersion,and finds out the pattern of Northeast Thai students’ fricative.At the same time,compares the data and pattern of the fricative of Chinese and Thai speakers,then finds out the fricative acquisition characteristics of Northeast Thai primary school students.The third part,based on the two-syllable words,carries out the acoustic experiments of Mandarin fricative which were spoken by 24 Northeast Thai primary school students in the second,fourth and sixth grades,focusing on the GAP,DOF,center of gravity and dispersion.Using the data of GAP and DOF,it presents a pattern of Northeast Thai students’ affricate duration;using the data of center of gravity and dispersion,it shows a pattern of Northeast Thai students’ affricate friction;then using the ratio of GAP and DOF,the center of gravity and dispersion,it gets the Duration Index,the Friction Index and the pattern of the Northeast Thai students’ affricate.Next,it compares the data and pattern of the affricate duration,affricate friction,affricate of Chinese and Thai speakers,then finds out the affricate acquisition characteristics of Northeast Thai primary school students.The fourth part applies the perception experiment and uses the experimental method of perceptual recognition to statistically analyze the distribution of the perceptual errors of the Mandarin’s fricative and affricate of the primary school students in Northeast Thailand.The study finds out the influence of perception on the acquisitions of Mandarin’s fricative and affricate of primary school students in Northeast Thailand.Discovered that perceptual error is one of the reasons why the primary school students in Northeast Thailand have errors when they learn Mandarin fricative and affricate.The fifth part synthesizes the conclusions of the second,third and fourth parts to analyze the pronunciation difficulties and the causes of them when Northeast Thai primary school students have when studying Mandarin’s fricative and affricate.Finally,it proposes relevant teaching suggestions on the difficulties.The sixth part is the conclusion.

  • 【网络出版投稿人】 西南大学
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