中国基础教育博硕士论文库

节点文献

小学数学教科书内容分布及认知要求的比较研究 ——以四年级为例

【作者】 李都

【导师】 宋乃庆;

【作者基本信息】 西南大学, 数学教育, 2019, 硕士

【副题名】以四年级为例

【摘要】 学校教育是国家培养人才的摇篮,课程又是学校教育的核心,是教师和学生搭建教与学桥梁的主要依据。其中,教科书是课程最主要的教学载体,体现了国家意志,某种程度上决定和反映了数学教育的发展水平。在我国“一标多本”教科书多样化发展的背景下,不同版本小学数学教科书的内容分布存在一定的差异,这会影响学生的数学学习成就。在数学教学中,内容的认知要求占据了一定的地位,关注数学内容的认知要求,可以使学生更好地发展。因此,对不同版本小学数学教科书内容分布及认知要求的研究就显得尤为重要,这对教科书的修订,对教师的教学等方面都具有重要意义。本研究主要采用了文献研究法、比较研究法、内容分析法和统计分析法,从内容分布和内容认知要求两个方面对人教版、北师大版、西师版四年级教科书中数与代数、图形与几何、统计与概率和综合与实践等领域进行比较研究,主要围绕以下两个问题展开:一是三个版本四年级数学教科书中内容分布的异同;二是三个版本四年级数学教科书中内容认知要求的异同。首先,通过文献研究界定了认知要求这一核心概念,再对三个版本四年级教科书进行细致地研读,得出数学内容在教科书中的两种呈现形式,然后结合《义务教育数学课程标准(2011年版)》和内容的两种呈现形式,构建内容认知要求的分析框架,进而对教科书进行比较,得出结果,形成以下主要结论:(1)三个版本四年级数学教科书内容分布的相同之处:在数与代数领域中内容数量分布的差异不大,且都重视“数的认识”“数的运算”“图形的认识”及“简单数据统计过程”的学习。在综合与实践领域,都设置有相同数与代数内容的实践活动。(2)三个版本四年级数学教科书内容分布的不同之处:首先,三个版本教科书在内容的选择上存在一定的差异,有些内容仅其中两个版本涉及,有些仅一个版本涉及。其次,在图形与几何领域,人教版内容分布最多,北师大版居中,西师版最少;在统计与概率领域,北师大版内容分布较多,西师版次之且多于人教版;在综合与实践领域,西师版内容分布最多,人教版和北师大版相同且均少于西师版。(3)三个版本四年级数学教科书内容认知要求的相同之处:首先,三个版本四年级教科书在数与代数、图形与几何中大部分内容的认知要求是一致的,且都侧重于“理解”水平。其次,三个版本教科书在数与代数领域都涉及了三种水平的认知要求,在图形与几何领域都没有涉及“应用”水平,在统计与概率领域都涉及了“理解”水平,在综合与实践领域均为“应用”水平。(4)三个版本四年级数学教科书内容认知要求的不同之处:在数与代数领域,人教版和北师大版的认知要求水平一样,且低于西师版。在图形与几何领域,西师版的认知要求水平高于北师大版,北师大版高于人教版。在统计与概率领域,西师版的认知要求水平高于人教版,人教版高于北师大版。根据研究的结论,得出如下启示:(1)对教科书修订而言,人教版四年级可适当增加“随机现象发生的可能性”的内容,西师版可适当增加部分图形与几何的内容,人教版和北师大版可以在四年级上下册增加图形与几何和统计与概率的实践内容,由于综合与实践领域的特殊性,这在一定程度上也可以使得这两个版本涉及“应用”水平的内容有所增加,从而与西师版教科书的认知要求水平缩小差异。(2)对教师教学而言,在进行教学设计时,可结合学生的实际情况,借鉴其他版本教科书的认知要求,选择适合学生学习的认知要求水平,从而更好地进行课堂教学。(3)对质量监测命题而言,应选取三个版本都有所涉及的内容,并且确保其认知要求水平一致。本研究深入到内容的认知层面去分析小学数学教科书对数学内容的编写,以认知要求作为主要线索对小学数学教科书中的内容进行比较研究,具有一定的新意。由于时间和水平的有限,研究的不足之处在于两点,一是研究教科书的版本数量较少,使得研究覆盖面具有一定的局限性;二是本研究仅从静态的角度比较三个版本教科书,研究结果仅代表了教科书静态的文本结果,因此,可设计针对教师的问卷调查或访谈,增加动态研究,从而综合反映研究的结果。

【Abstract】 School education is the cradle for the country to cultivate talents.Curriculum is the core of school education,and it is the main basis for teachers and students to build a bridge between teaching and learning.Among them,as the main teaching carrier of curriculum,textbooks embodies the will of the nation,to some extent,it determines and reflects the development level of mathematics education.Under the background of diversified development of “one standard multiple textbooks” in China,the content distribution of different primary school mathematics textbooks is different,and it will affect students’ mathematics learning.In the teaching of mathematics,the cognitive demands of content occupy a certain position.Paying attention to the cognitive demands of mathematics content can make the student develop better.Therefore,it is particularly important to study the content distribution and cognitive demands of different versions of primary school mathematics textbooks,which is significance to the revision of textbooks and teachers’ teaching.This research mainly adopts the methods of literature research,comparative study,content analysis and statistical analysis to compare the content distribution and cognitive demands of number and algebra,figure and geometry,statistics and probability,synthesis and practice in the fourth grade textbooks,which were published by People’s Education Press,Beijing Normal University Press and Southwest Normal University Press.This research mainly focus on the following two issues: The first is similarities and differences in content distribution among the three versions of the fourth grade mathematics textbooks.The second is similarities and differences in content cognitive demands among the three versions of the fourth grade mathematics textbooks.First of all,the core concept of cognitive demands is defined through literature research,then I carefully study the three versions of the fourth grade mathematics textbooks,and the two forms of presentation of mathematics content intextbooks are obtained.The second,combined with the compulsory education mathematics curriculum standards(2011 version)and the the two forms of presentation of the content,I construct an analytical framework of content cognitive demands,and then analyse the textbooks.In the end,produce the results,and form the following main conclusions:(1)The similarities in content distribution among the three versions of fourth grade mathematics textbooks: In the field of number and algebra,there is little difference in content quantity distribution,and the three versions all attach importance to the study of “knowledge of numbers”,“operation of numbers”,“knowledge of figures” and “simple statistical process of data”.In the field of synthesis and practice,the three versions all set the same practice activities about number and algebra content.(2)The differences in content distribution among the three versions of fourth grade mathematics textbooks: First of all,there are some differences in the choice of content among the three versions of textbooks,some of which are involved in only two versions and some only one version.Secondly,in the field of graphics and geometry,the content distribution of the People’s Education Press version is the most,the Beijing Normal University Press version is in the middle,and the Southwest Normal University Press version is the least.In the field of statistics and probability,the content of Beijing Normal University Press version is more distributed than that of Southwest Normal University Press version.In the field of synthesis and practice,the content distributed of the Southwest Normal University Press version is the most,the People’s Education Press version is the same as the Beijing Normal University Press version and less than the Southwest Normal University version.(3)The similarities in content cognitive demands among the three versions of fourth grade mathematics textbooks: First of all,the three versions of the fourth grade textbooks have the same cognitive demands for most of the content in number and algebra,graphics and geometry,and all focus on the “understanding” level.Secondly,the three versions of the textbooks all involve three levels of cognitive demands in the field of number and algebra,they do not involve the “using” level in graphics or geometry,and they are all in “using” level in the fields of synthesis and practice.(4)The differences in content cognitive demands among the three versions of fourth grade mathematics textbooks: In the field of number and algebra,the cognitive demands level of the People’s Education Press version is the same as that of the Beijing Normal University Press version,and lower than that of the Southwest Normal University Press version.In the field of graphics and geometry,the cognitive demands level of the Southwest Normal University Press version is higher than that of the Beijing Normal University Press version,and theBeijing Normal University Press version is higher than the People’s Education Press version.In the field of statistics and probability,the cognitive demands level of the Southwest Normal University Press version is higher than that of the People’s Education Press version,and the People’s Education Press version is higher than that of the Beijing Normal University Press version.According to the conclusions of the research,the following enlightenments can be drawn:(1)For the textbooks revising,the content of “probability of random phenomenon” can be appropriately added in grade four of the People’s Education Press version,and the Southwest Normal University Press version can be appropriate to add some graphics and geometry content,and the People’s Education Press and Beijing Normal University Press versions can add practical content of graphics and geometry,statistics and probability in both volumes of the fourth grade.Due to the particularity of the field of synthesis and practice,to some extent,the content related to the “using” level in these two versions can also be increased,so as to narrow the differences with the cognitive demands of the Southwest Normal University Press textbooks.(2)For the teachers’ teaching,when teachers design teaching plan,they can combine the actual situation of students and refer to the cognitive demands of other versions of textbooks,and choose the cognitive demands levels suitable for students to learn,so as to better carry out classroom teaching.(3)For the mathematics quality monitoring,content selection should involve what is covered by all three versions and ensuring that the cognitive demands for the relevant content are the same.This research analyzes the compilation of mathematics content in primary school mathematics textbooks from the perspective of content cognition,and it makes a comparative study on the content of primary school mathematics textbooks with the cognitive demands as the main clue,which is the innovation of this research.Due to limited time and ability,there are also some shortages in this research: First,the number of versions of research textbooks is small,which makes the research coverage have certain limitations.Second,this research only compare the three versions of textbooks from the static perspective,and the research results only represent the static text results of textbooks.Therefore,the research can design questionnaire or interview for teachers to add dynamic research,so as to reflect the research results comprehensively.

  • 【网络出版投稿人】 西南大学
节点文献中: