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初中英语课堂实习教师指令语的调查研究 ——以鲁巷中学为例

【作者】 陈艳芳

【导师】 文斌;

【作者基本信息】 华中师范大学, 学科教学(英语), 2020, 硕士

【副题名】以鲁巷中学为例

【摘要】 一堂高效有序的英语课,离不开教师的指令语。教师指令语作为学生课堂语言输入的重要组成部分,对优化教学成效、促进学生语言习得和师生互动都有重要意义。国内外专家学者对教师指令语的研究主要针对在职教师的教学课堂,而实习教师作为未来教师队伍的重要力量,需要注重对其课堂指令语方面的关注与培养。同时,初中英语课堂作为中学教育的重要组成部分,因此对初中英语实习教师指令语的研究具有重要的现实意义。本研究主要旨在围绕以下三个问题展开:(1)初中英语实习教师的指令语使用现状如何?(2)学生对于教师指令语的态度和期待如何?(3)实习教师指令语的使用情况和学生的对指令语的期待是否存在不同?如果有,有哪些不同且如何改进实习教师指令语?针对上述问题,本文从武汉市鲁巷中学三位不同班级的初中英语课堂实习教师指令语入手,借助课堂观察、课堂实录与转写、问卷调查收集数据。基于言语行为理论和输入假说,对一次下发的课堂指令语数量、句式特征、策略情况进行分析,研究初中英语实习教师指令语的使用现状、学生对教师指令语的态度和期待、两者之间的差异性及减小差异性办法。研究结果表明:(1)实习英语教师多数情况一次性向学生下发一个指令,其次两个到三个,有时同时下发四至八个指令;实习教师主要以祈使句和缩略词等直接指令句式为主,偶尔使用其他类型的间接指令句式;实习教师较少使用指令策略,且主要以解释和重复指令为主,较少使用翻译策略。(2)大部分学生希望教师一次发一至三个指令;大部分学生希望教师使用丰富的句式并偏爱祈使句和缩略词等直接指令句式,间接指令句式中,更偏爱问句形式。大部分学生希望教师使用多种指令策略,偏爱解释、重复和举例策略,对核实理解和翻译策略持不同态度。(3)实习教师指令语的使用情况和学生的对指令语的期待存在不同。实习教师有时一次下发指令过多,影响学生理解,应控制在一至三个指令;实习教师使用的指令句式较为单一,应丰富指令句式;实习教师数量上较少使用指令策略且很少使用举例的方式,应丰富指令策略的使用,根据具体情况合理使用核实理解和翻译策略,并加强师生之间的交流。通过对初中英语实习教师指令语的使用状况和学生对教师指令语的期望的研究,实习英语教师更加了解学生的需要和自己的不足并不断反思和提升自身课堂指令语的使用,提高课堂效率的同时不断丰富学生的语言输入。

【Abstract】 An effective and well-organized English class can not be achieved without teachers’ directives.Teachers’ directives,as an important part of language input for students in class,are of high significance to improve English classroom teaching and to foster foreign language acquisition and interaction between teachers and students.Most previous studies at home and abroad mainly focus on in-service teachers’ classroom teaching.However,much more attention should also be paid to the cultivation and training of student teachers who are the important part of future teachers in high schools.Meanwhile,junior high school English teaching is significant for the whole high school education system therefore the study of student teachers’ directives in junior high school is of highly practical significance.While the following three problems are mainly existing for student teachers’ directives in English Classroom:(1)What is the status quo of student teachers’ directives in junior high school English classroom?(2)What are students’ attitudes and expectations towards the use of directives?(3)Are there any gaps between the actual use of student teachers’ directives and students’ expectations?If so,what are they and how to reduce the gaps?To tackle the above problems,three student teachers and their own classes respectively of Luxiang Middle School in Wuhan are chosen as the participants.And two times of classroom observations and video recordings for each student teacher as well as 150 questionnaires are conducted to collect the data.Based on the speech act theory and the input hypothesis,the status quo of student teachers’ use of directives in junior high school towards the amount of directives at one time,sentence structures and directive strategies is analyzed by the transcript texts of video-recordings.Students’ attitudes and expectations of students towards student teachers’ use of directives in junior high school are explored through questionnaires and the gaps of both as well as how to reduce the gaps are elaborately discussed.This study shows:(1)Student teachers issue one directive at one time most and then two or three directives at one time take the second and third places respectively.They sometimes issue four to eight directives at one time;The direct directives of(You)+VP+(please)and elliptical sentence are in predominance.They sometimes use other types of sentence structures;They seldom use directive strategies in class and most of directive strategies they used are explanation and repetition.Translation is hardly used compared with other strategies.(2)The majority of students expect teachers to issue one to three directives at one time.They expect teachers to use various sentence structures of directives and they prefer(You)+VP+(please)and elliptical sentence.For indirect directives,they prefer interrogative and "could you...".Most students hope that teachers use various kinds of directive strategies,especially explanation,repetition and examples.And students show disparities on check-up and translation strategies.(3)There are gaps between the actual use of student teachers’ directives and students’ expectations.Student teachers sometimes issue too many directives at one time,which influences students’ comprehension.Thus one to three directives at one time should be encouraged.Student teachers’ sentence structures are rather monotonous and various types of sentence structures can be used in class;student teachers seldom use directive strategies in class,particularly giving examples.Various directive strategies should be conducted.Further check-up and translation strategies can be used based on real teaching context and settings.According to the study towards student teachers’ use of directives in junior high school and students’ expectations to directives,student teachers get to know more about students’ needs and at the same time they will reflect on their own teaching and polish their use of instructional directives in order to improve classroom efficiency and enrich language input for students.

  • 【网络出版投稿人】 华中师范大学
  • 【分类号】G633.41
  • 【下载频次】179
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