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基于SOLO理论的初中化学学习诊断与实践研究 ——以“物质构成的奥秘”为例

【作者】 钱毅

【导师】 沈甸;

【作者基本信息】 华东师范大学, 教育硕士(专业学位), 2020, 硕士

【副题名】以“物质构成的奥秘”为例

【摘要】 《物质构成的奥秘》这一章的学习是整个中学阶段化学用语学习和应用的必要前提,是学生学习化学的重要基础,其贯穿了整个中学阶段乃至更高层次的化学学习过程。同时这一章的知识对于初中学生的化学学习来说也是第一个学习难点和成绩的两极分化点。教学时教师难以让学生构建起微观知识框架,无法让学生看到微观事物而建立微观认知体系,导致学生在学习时难以理解微观的概念,对这部分微观概念的掌握也良莠不齐,教师无法准确了解其对这部分知识的掌握程度以做出针对性的指导。有鉴于此,本研究创造性的利用SOLO分类理论结合课程标准中的考点,编制学习诊断工具,对学生的学习情况进行诊断,以提出针对性的教学策略解决这部分知识教学的难点。本研究采用了文献查阅法、纸笔测验法、访谈研究法、实践研究法和数据分析法,研究对象为四川省成都市某学校初中化学的两个平行班的学生。首先根据课程标准与当地考纲编制两套章末检测试卷分别在学生初次学习完成《物质构成的奥秘》这章后和一轮复习完《物质构成的奥秘》这章后进行测试,在根据SOLO理论结合课程标准编制学习诊断工具对两次测试结果进行学习诊断。并在第一次测试后对实验班学生进行分类,在一轮复习时对实验班采取基于SOLO理论的分类复习模式,复习完后和采取常规复习的对照班比较。通过以上研究试图找出学生在《物质构成的奥秘》这一章的学习分化情况和基于SOLO理论的分类复习模式对提高复习课效率的重要作用。根据本研究的结果发现,初次学习完《物质构成的奥秘》这章后,学生对于多元结构水平的知识掌握得最好,而在单一结构水平上的知识掌握较差,关联水平和抽象和拓展水平知识掌握最差,是学习分化点所在,而通过两种复习方式后的学生均在前两个较低水平上对知识的掌握有较大提高,而在后两个较高知识水平上则难有提升,并且分化情况加剧。对比对照班和实验班复习前后的各水平得分情况发现,基于SOLO理论的分类复习模式能比传统的复习模式更高效的提高学生在复习的效果。根据本研究所得到的结果,笔者结合实际教学提出了三条教学建议,分别是教师在新课教学时应多关注基础知识的教学、教师在教学过程中要关注学生各个方面的差异、教师在布置练习应对练习分类化。

【Abstract】 The study of the mystery of material composition is the necessary premise for the learning and application of chemical terms in the whole middle school stage,and the important foundation for students to learn chemistry,which runs through the whole middle school stage and even the higher level of chemistry learning process.At the same time,the knowledge of this chapter is also the first learning difficulty and achievement polarization point for junior middle school students’ chemistry study.In teaching,it is difficult for teachers to build a micro knowledge framework for students,so that students can not see microscopic things and establish micro cognitive system,which makes students difficult to understand micro concepts in learning.The mastery of this part of micro concepts is also very different.Teachers can not accurately understand their knowledge of this part of knowledge,so as to make targeted guidance.In view of this,this study creatively uses the SOLO classification theory combined with the examination points in the curriculum standards to compile learning diagnostic tools to diagnose students’ learning conditions,so as to propose targeted teaching strategies to solve the difficulties in this part of knowledge teaching.This study adopts literature review method,paper and pencil test method,interview research method,practical research method and data analysis method.The research objects are students from two parallel classes of junior middle school chemistry in chengdu,sichuan province.First according to the curriculum standard and the local test at the end of the chapter outline to prepare two sets of test paper respectively in the students for the first time after completing the chapter "the mystery of the material" and round review after the chapter "the mystery of the material" test,in according to the theory of SOLO combining curriculum standard establishment study diagnostic tool to study the result of the two tests to diagnose.After the first test,the students of the experimental class were classified.In one round of review,the experimental class was classified and reviewed based on SOLO theory,and compared with the control class that took regular review after the review.Through the above studies,the author tries to find out the students’ learning differentiation in the chapter of the mystery of material composition and the important role of the classified review model based on the SOLO theory in improving the efficiency of review.First learning according to the results of this study found that after the chapter "the mystery of the material",best students grasp of multivariate structure level,and on the level of single structure,poor grasp of associated mastery of the knowledge level and abstract and expand the worst,is learning differentiation points,and by both after review the way students are on the first two low mastery of knowledge has increased greatly,while in the latter two higher knowledge level is difficult to ascend,and differentiation.By comparing the scores of each level before and after review between the comparison class and the experimental class,it is found that the classified review mode based on SOLO theory can improve students’ review effect more efficiently than the traditional review mode.According to the results obtained in this research,the author puts forward three teaching Suggestions based on actual teaching,which are that teachers should pay more attention to the teaching of basic knowledge in the new course teaching,teachers should pay attention to the differences of students in various aspects in the teaching process,and teachers should classify exercises when assigning exercises.

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全球学术快报

  • 【网络出版投稿人】 华东师范大学
  • 【分类号】G633.8
  • 【被引频次】2
  • 【下载频次】470
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