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小学生动作记忆定向遗忘的发展研究

【作者】 张鹏飞

【导师】 杨丽娴;

【作者基本信息】 福建师范大学, 基础心理学, 2019, 硕士

【摘要】 定向遗忘(Directed Forgetting)是有意遗忘(Intentional Forgetting)的一种,指的是遗忘的指向性和有意性。梳理前人研究成果,研究的材料更多的是言语任务、图片任务,对人们日常生活中的动作材料却少有研究。在已有的动作记忆的定向遗忘研究中,对小学生被试的研究仍缺少研究支持。而在以小学生为被试的研究中,被试主要来自中高年级,对定向遗忘出现在什么阶段,仍有不同观点。小学低年级儿童的思维以直观动作思维和具体形象思维为主,传统的定向遗忘的研究范式可能并不适用于他们。基于低年级儿童对动作的材料更加敏感,有可能更早就表现出定向遗忘,本研究采用项目法范式,通过三个实验考察小学生的动作记忆的定向遗忘特点及发展趋势。实验1,对不执行动作(VT)和执行动作(SPT)条件下的定向遗忘效应进行研究,比较了低年级学生在这两种条件下定向遗忘的差异,验证低年级儿童定向遗忘的能力。实验2在实验1的基础上,通过两个子实验对低中高三个阶段的学生进行研究,探讨两种条件下定向遗忘的发展。得到如下结论:(1)小学低年级存在项目法的定向遗忘效应,但只表现在不执行动作条件下,执行动作条件下没有;(2)从小学低年级到小学高年级,定向遗忘的能力是不断发展的,在中高年级处于较稳定的发展阶段,六年级时出现类似于成人的动作记忆定向遗忘效应;(3)不同任务条件下存在年龄差异;(4)不同任务条件下的定向遗忘存在转折。

【Abstract】 Directed forgetting is a category of intentional forgetting,referring to its directed and intentional nature.Combing through the previous research results,the research materials are more verbal tasks and picture tasks,but there is little research on the motor materials in people’s daily life.In the existing studies on directed forgetting of action memory,there is still a lack of supporting research for primary school students.However,in the study of primary school students,the subjects are mainly from middle and upper grades.There are still different opinions on the stage of directed forgetting,but the majority agree with the stage after middle grades.The thinking of children in the lower grades of primary school is dominated by intuitive action thinking and concrete image thinking,and the traditional research paradigm of directed forgetting may not be applicable to them.Based on the fact that children in lower grades are more sensitive to movement materials and are likely to show directed forgetting earlier,this study adopts the project method paradigm to investigate the characteristics and development trend of directed forgetting of primary school students’ action memory through three experiments.In experiment 1,the effects of directed forgetting were studied under the conditions of Verbal task and Subject performed task,and the differences of directed forgetting in the two conditions were compared among the lower-grade students,so as to verify the ability of directed forgetting in the lower-grade students.On the basis of experiment one,experiment two has two subexperiments.They explore the development of directed forgetting under two conditions by studying students in three stages: lower,middle and upper,which mainly discusses the turning point of intentional forgetting ability under two different task conditions.This study has obtained the following conclusions :(1)There is a directed forgetting effect of item method in the lower grades of primary school,but it is only shown in the condition of verbal task,but not in the condition of Subject performed task;(2)From the lower grades of primary school to the upper grades of primary school,the ability of directed forgetting is constantly developed,and the middle and upper grades are in a relatively stable development stage;(3)There are age differences under different task conditions;(4)There is a turning point of directed forgetting under different task conditions.

【关键词】 动作记忆定向遗忘项目法小学生
【Key words】 action memorydirected forgettingitem methodstudents
  • 【网络出版投稿人】 福建师范大学
  • 【分类号】B842.3
  • 【下载频次】63
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