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铜陵市近十年未成年人犯罪案件调研报告

【作者】 王艺文

【导师】 李胜利;

【作者基本信息】 安徽大学, 法律硕士(法学)(专业学位), 2020, 硕士

【摘要】 铜官区法院自2004年开始指定集中管辖铜陵市未成年人刑事案件以来,(1)经过十五年的探索和实践,在审理未成年人刑事案件方面积累了一定的经验。本调研报告全面梳理铜陵市近十年集中管辖的未成年人刑事案件,对186起未成年人刑事案件的基本情况、共性及个性特征等进行逐案分析,发现相比全国近十年来未成年人犯罪人数和犯罪比例持续降低,近年来,铜陵市未成年人犯罪案件数量和犯罪人数有所上升,未成年人犯罪比例较高,本地未成年犯比重大,在校生犯罪人数呈上升趋势,重新犯罪率和审前羁押率较高,聚众斗殴、寻衅滋事犯罪突出。未成年人走上犯罪道路受个人、家庭、学校、社会等多方面因素影响。随着经济社会的发展,人均受教育程度普遍提高,虽然未成年人的文化程度有所提高,但其认知水平有限,受同辈群体影响,容易产生性格行为偏差,加上法律意识淡薄,从而走上违法犯罪道路。每个“问题少年”背后都有一个“问题家庭”。未成年被告人大多数家庭结构不完整,家庭教育缺失或者教育方式不当,部分未成年人家庭经济困难,为获取财物走上犯罪道路。学校对法治教育和心理健康重视不够,学校家庭脱节,造成未成年人在违法犯罪边缘徘徊,却浑然不知。很多未成年犯尚未完成学业就中途辍学,沉迷于网吧或娱乐场所。社会不良因素诱导,未成年人重点场所监管不足,困境未成年人帮扶缺位,对未成年犯教育改造成效不佳,一定程度上增加了未成年人实施违法犯罪或重新犯罪的风险。预防和矫治未成年人违法犯罪,需要政国家、家庭、学校、社会各方共同努力,立足源头做好预防工作,有针对地制定矫治措施。遵循国家亲权理念,引入强制性亲职教育制度,加强对困境未成年人的帮扶力度。强化九年义务教育执行力度,在条件成熟的情况下,建议实行十二年义务教育。加强家庭和学校之间的衔接配合,发挥犯罪预防合力。学校应树立正确的教学理念,加强对在校学生的日常管理,预防和处置校园内存在的欺凌偷窃等不良行为。加强未成年人犯罪重点场所的管理和监督,发挥社区预防功能,加大社区内未成年人服务建设项目的投入力度,尽可能消除导致未成年人违法犯罪的不良因素。建立罪错未成年人分级干预制度,针对严重不良行为的未成年人,送专门学校进行矫治;对未达到刑事责任年龄的未成年人,由政府收容教养;对判处非监禁刑的未成年罪犯,按照新修订的《社区矫正法》规定,做好社区矫正工作;对判处实刑的未成年罪犯,完善开放式处遇,为未成年犯重新适应社会创造条件;建立未成年人社会帮教长效机制,依托学校、社区、企业为载体,有针对性地制定帮教措施。

【Abstract】 Since the court of Tongguan District began to designate a centralized jurisdiction over juvenile criminal cases in Tongling City in 2004,after fifteen years of exploration and practice,it has accumulated some experience in juvenile criminal cases.This research report comprehensively sorts out the criminal cases of minors under centralized jurisdiction in Tongling City in the past ten years,and analyzes the basic situation,commonality and personality characteristics of 186 criminal cases of minors on a case-by-case basis.The number of people committing crimes and the proportion of crimes continue to decrease.In recent years,the number of crimes and crimes committed by minors in Tongling City has increased.The proportion of minors committing crimes is relatively high.The proportion of local minors is large.The recidivism rate and pretrial detention rate are relatively high,and the crimes of gathering crowds to fight and provoking troubles are prominent.Minors embarking on crimes are affected by many factors including individuals,families,schools,and society.With the development of economy and society,the education level per capita has generally improved.Although the educational level of minors has improved,their cognitive level is limited.Influenced by peer groups,they are prone to deviations in personality and behavior,and the legal consciousness is weak.Embark on the road of illegal and criminal.Behind every "problem boy" is a "problem family".Most of the minor defendants have incomplete family structure,lack of family education or improper education methods,and some minor families have financial difficulties and embark on a criminal path to obtain property.The school does not pay enough attention to the education of the rule of law and mental health,and the school family is disconnected,causing minors to wander on the verge of breaking the law but unaware of it.Many juvenile offenders drop out of school before completing their studies and indulge in Internet cafes or entertainment venues.Induced by unhealthy social factors,insufficient supervision of minors’ key places,and the assistance of minors in difficult situations,and the poor education and reform of minors have not achieved good results,which has increased the risk of minors committing illegal crimes or re-offending to a certain extent.Preventing and correcting juvenile delinquency and crime requires the joint efforts of political countries,families,schools,and society,doing prevention work based on the source,and formulating corrective measures in a targeted manner.Follow the concept of national parental rights,introduce a mandatory parental education system,and strengthen support for minors in trouble.Strengthen the implementation of nine-year compulsory education,and when conditions are ripe,it is recommended to implement twelve-year compulsory education.Strengthen the cohesion and cooperation between families and schools,and give full play to crime prevention.The school should establish a correct teaching concept,strengthen the daily management of the students in the school,and prevent and deal with the bullying and theft of bad behaviors on the campus.Strengthen the management and supervision of minor crime places,give full play to the prevention function of the community,increase the investment of minor service construction projects in the community,and eliminate as many negative factors as possible that cause minors to commit crimes.Establish a grading intervention system for minors who commit wrongdoing,and send them to specialized schools for correction for minors with serious bad behavior;the minors under the age of criminal responsibility shall be taken care of by the government;for minor offenders sentenced to non-custodial sentences,According to the newly revised "Community Correction Law",do a good job in community corrections;improve the open treatment of juvenile offenders sentenced to imprisonment,create conditions for juvenile offenders to adapt to society;establish long-term social assistance for minors The mechanism relies on schools,communities,and enterprises as carriers to formulate targeted education measures.

  • 【网络出版投稿人】 安徽大学
  • 【分类号】D669.5;D924.3;D926.22
  • 【下载频次】267
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