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英美两国中学阶段生涯教育的比较研究

【作者】 张蔚然

【导师】 石伟平;

【作者基本信息】 华东师范大学, 职业技术教育学, 2020, 博士

【摘要】 《国家中长期教育改革和发展规划纲要(2010-2020年)》中指出要建立学生发展指导制度,加强对学生的理想、心理、学业等多方面指导。自此,中学阶段生涯教育开始得到了更多关注。随后,2014年新高考改革的启动打破了传统的考试科目选择模式,带来了学生生涯决策的前置,也倒逼学校思考如何为学生提供生涯教育,为学生的生涯决策与规划提供帮助。然而,由于种种原因,我国当前中学阶段开展生涯教育的过程中存在一定的困境。而在国家的教育改革活动遇到“瓶颈”之时,先进国家的成熟经验通常能够为破解困境带来别样的角度。放眼国际,英美两国中学阶段生涯教育起步早、发展久,相对系统、成熟,而且在发展过程中形成了许多宝贵的经验。他山之石,可以攻玉。本研究试图从英美两国中学阶段生涯教育入手,探寻其成熟经验,为我国中学阶段生涯教育的发展提供启示和借鉴。本研究采用历史研究法、文献研究法和比较研究法,对英美两国中学阶段生涯教育的历史发展、实践现状与典型问题进行了探讨,并着眼于我国发展中学阶段生涯教育的现实困境,借鉴英美两国的成熟经验,思考我国中学阶段生涯教育未来可能的发展方向。在历史发展方面,本研究在对英美两国中学阶段生涯教育的历史发展进行系统梳理后得出若干基本规律:首先,中学阶段生涯教育经历了匹配取向的职业指导、发展取向的生涯指导以及建构取向的生涯教育这三种典型范式;其次,政府引导与支持是中学阶段生涯教育发展的重要动力来源;再次,中学阶段生涯教育的发展与政治、经济、社会环境的变革息息相关,在回应不断变化的社会需求中走向成熟与完善,从静态、孤立走向了发展、系统;最后,对中学阶段生涯教育师资的要求也不断提高,对于其培养也日趋专业化。在实践现状方面,本研究聚焦于微观层次,对两国中学阶段生涯教育的目标、内容、实施、评价和师资进行了深入分析,在呈现两国现状的基础上进行了比较,探究了其共同经验。研究发现,在目标方面,英美两国中学阶段生涯教育目标体系的形成与表达受到社会环境、国家教育目的、专业组织倡议以及学校教育目标的影响和塑造;两国中学阶段生涯教育的目标体系均凸显建构主义色彩,将学生的生涯发展视为由其自身主导的主观建构过程,将生涯管理能力的培养作为中学阶段生涯教育目标的共同核心。在内容方面,两国中学阶段生涯教育的内容选择凸显学生本位的价值取向,并且均包含了自我认知、生涯认知、生涯规划与管理方面的内容要素,内容的组织呈现逐级递进、螺旋上升的特征。在实施方面,英美两国中学阶段生涯教育均有着多重实施路径,并且强调获得全校认同与支持、多方力量共同参与、加强与工作世界的联系以及强调生涯教育的公正性。在评价方面,两国均强调由多元评价主体对中学阶段生涯教育的整体设计、过程以及结果进行评价,强调形成性评价与终结性评价的结合与平衡,以及通过开发多样化的评价工具,针对不同的评价目的搜集恰当的数据和信息。在师资方面,两国的中学阶段生涯教育的师资构成均具有多样化的特征,其角色内涵也由单一走向了多元。在典型问题方面,本研究探讨了英美两国中学阶段生涯教育的六个典型问题,认为中学阶段生涯教育的对象应当是全体学生;中学阶段生涯教育的关键目标应在于培养学生的生涯管理能力;应当综合使用多种课程设置方法,以更加充分地发挥生涯教育的作用;生涯教育师资需要具备四类基本能力,以胜任实施生涯教育的多重专业角色;中学阶段生涯教育可以考虑采用分层递进的实施模型,以更好地满足学生的需求;生涯教育的有效运行需要获得政策支持与经费投入,需要多方参与者的协同参与以及标准导向的质量保障。最后,本研究基于我国发展中学阶段生涯教育的现实问题,结合英美两国的成熟经验,对我国发展中学阶段生涯教育提出了若干建议,包括转变观念,重塑对于生涯教育的合理认知;制定中学阶段生涯教育的国家标准,细化生涯教育的目标与内容设计;加强整体规划,完善中学阶段生涯教育的实施与评价;建立专兼结合、能力达标的师资队伍;汇聚多方力量,充分发挥社会合力。

【Abstract】 The “National Medium and Long-term Education Reform and Development Plan(2010-2020)” pointed out that we should establish the student development guidance system in high schools in China,and strengthen the guidance on students’ ideals,psychology,academic performance and other aspects,and then career education and guidance in secondary schools began to receive more attention.Subsequently,the launch of the new college entrance examination reform in 2014 broke the traditional examination subject selection mode and brought about the advance of students’ career decision-making,which forced schools to think about how to provide students with career education and guidance and help them make career decision and planning.However,due to various reasons,there are some difficulties in the process of developing career education and guidance in middle school.When the educational reform activities of a country encounter a "bottleneck",the mature experience from advanced countries can usually offer a different perspective to solve the problem.From the international perspective,career education and guidance in English and American secondary schools started early,had a long history,and are relatively systematic and mature,which had a lot of valuable experience in the process of development.This study attempts to explore whether the successful experience of career education and guidance in England and American schools can be used by us,so as to provide enlightenment and reference for the development of career education and guidance in secondary schools in China.This research adopts the historical research,literature research and comparative research methods.The historical development of career education and guidance as well as its practice of the status quo and typical problems in secondary schools in Britain and America are discussed in this paper.With an eye to the difficulties of the development of career education and guidance in secondary schools in our country,this research draws lessons from the mature experience of the two countries,and thinks of the possible future development direction in our country.This research finds thatThese three paradigms have differences in the understanding of career and educational objects,educational objectives and educational strategies.The evolution of career education paradigm also promotes the historical development of career education in secondary schools in England and America.After a systematic review of the historical development of career education in secondary schools in England and American,several basic rules can be drawn.Firstly,the development of career education and guidance in secondary schools has experienced three paradigms,including match-oriented vocational guidance,developing-oriented career guidance and constructingoriented career education and guidance.Secondly,government leading and support is an important source of motivation for the development of career education in secondary schools.Thirdly,the development of career education and guidance in secondary schools is closely related to the change of political,economic and social environment,and it evolved from static and isolated to developmental and systemic.Lastly,the requirements for career education and guidance teachers in secondary schools have been constantly improved,and their training has become increasingly professional.In terms of the status quo of practice,this research focuses on the micro level,and makes an in-depth analysis of the goals,contents,implementation,evaluation and teachers of career education and guidance in secondary school in the two countries.On the basis of presenting the status quo,it makes a comparison,explores the common experience and explains the differences.In terms of goals,the formation and expression of the goal system of secondary school career education in Britain and the United States are influenced and shaped by social environment,national educational goal,professional organization and school education goal.The goal systems of secondary school career education in both countries highlight constructivism and regard students’ career development as a subjective construction process led by themselves.Career management skills are regarded as the common core of career education goals in British and American secondary schools.The content selection centers on students,and contains the content elements of self-cognition,career cognition,career planning and management.The organization of content presents the characteristics of progressive and spiral.In terms of implementation,career education and guidance in both two countries has multiple implementation paths,and emphasizes the buy-in and support of the whole school,the joint participation of multiple forces,strengthening the connection with the working world and the justice of career education and guidance.In terms of evaluation,both countries emphasize that the overall design,process and results of career education and guidance should be evaluated by multiple evaluation subjects,and emphasize the combination and balance of formative evaluation and summative evaluation,and the appropriate data and information collection for different evaluation purposes through diversified evaluation tools.In terms of teachers,the composition of career education and guidance teachers in the two countries has the same characteristics of diversification and multiple professional roles.This research also puts forward some opinions on the six basic problems of the development of career education and guidance in secondary schools.It is believed that the object of career education and guidance in secondary schools should be all students.The key goal of career education and guidance in secondary schools is to cultivate students’ career management ability.In order to give full play to the role of career education and guidance,a variety of curriculum setting methods should be used in combination.Career education and guidance teachers should have four kinds of basic abilities to fulfill the five professional roles of career education and guidance.In order to better meet the needs of students,a hierarchical and progressive implementation model can be adopted.The effective operation of career education and guidance needs policy support and financial input,the collaborative participation of multiple participants and the standard-oriented quality assurance.Finally,based on the problems of career educationa and guidance in secondary schools in China,and combining with the common experience from UK and U.S.,this research puts forward some suggestions,including reshaping the recognition of career education and guidance,building the national standards for career education and guidance,improving the implementation and evaluation of career education and guidance,building a team of full-time and part-time teachers and encouraging multiple forces to participate.

【关键词】 生涯教育中学阶段美国英国
【Key words】 career educationsecondary schoolsUKUnited States

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  • 【网络出版投稿人】 华东师范大学
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