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安徽省民众教育研究(1927-1937)

【作者】 孙立成

【导师】 朱正业;

【作者基本信息】 安徽大学, 中国史, 2020, 硕士

【摘要】 19世纪末20世纪初,中国处于社会大变革时期,政权更迭、社会动荡,人民生活困苦,各种救国思潮兴起,一批又一批的有识之士发起各种运动,以期救亡图存。而民众教育就是在这一大背景之下逐渐兴起的,于南京国民政府成立之后,得到了政府的官方认可,并颁布相关法令在全国范围内推行。安徽作为历史上的教育大省,历来重视教育,于是积极结合本省的实际情况开展民众教育实践。早在民国初期就设立了通俗讲演所和通俗教育馆,这是民众教育的早期实践。但由于规模和地域的限制,很多教育事业无法开展。1930年,教育部颁布法令,将通俗教育馆改为民众教育馆,并将3所省立民众教育馆的馆址和规模进行了扩充,并相应地设立图书、讲演、科学、推广等部门,开展以健康、爱国、生计为核心的教育事业,部分县立民众教育馆也积极响应。此外,还设立民众学校作为民众教育的文化机构,开展以识字和失学民众补习教育为中心的文化教育事业,与各级民众教育馆相辅相成,成为安徽省民众教育的两大核心机构,共同推动民众教育事业前进和发展。1937年,抗日战争爆发,民众教育馆和民众学校的教育事业受到战争影响,大多面临的停办的局面。在1927—1937年是南京国民政府建设的“黄金十年”,也是安徽省民众教育发展的机遇期。在这一时期,安徽省开展的民众教育取得了相当的成果,一定程度上提高了安徽民众的文化水平,改变了安徽农村地区的封建陋习,辅导农民进行经济建设。但同时也存在一定的缺陷和不足,由于施教机构管理体系的不完善,加之民众教育经费的短缺,限制了民众教育事业的开展。这也为安徽省实施其他的教育提供了宝贵经验和教训。

【Abstract】 At the end of the 19 th century and the beginning of the 20 th century,China was in a period of great social change,with the change of political power and social turmoil,and the people living in hardship.In this context,mass education gradually emerged.After the establishment of the Nanjing national government,it was officially recognized by the government and issued relevant laws to be implemented nationwide.Anhui,as a big province of education in history,has always attached great importance to education.As early as in the early republic of China set up popular lecture and popular education library,which is the early practice of mass education.However,due to the size and geographical limitations,many educational undertakings can not be carried out.A decree in 1930,the Ministry of Education,change the popular education to public education center,3 provincial public education center and will be erected and scale expansion,and accordingly set up a book,speech,and science,the promotion department,to health,patriotic education,livelihood as the core business,part of the county public education center and positive response.In addition,the people’s school is set up as a cultural institution of people’s education to carry out cultural and educational undertakings centered on literacy and tutoring of people who are out of school.It is complementary with people’s education centers at all levels and has become the two core institutions of people’s education in Anhui province to jointly promote the progress and development of people’s education.In 1937,the Anti-Japanese War broke out,the public education center and public schools were affected by the war,and most of them were closed.From 1927 to 1937,it was the "golden decade" for the construction of Nanjing national government and the opportunity period for the development of mass education in Anhui province.During this period,the mass education carried out in Anhui province achieved considerable results,which to some extent improved the cultural level of the Anhui people,changed the feudal habits in rural areas of Anhui,and guided the farmers in economic construction.But at the same time,there are some defects and deficiencies,because of the imperfect management system of teaching institutions,coupled with the shortage of public education funds,the development of public education is limited.This also provides valuable experience and lesson for Anhui province to implement other education.

  • 【网络出版投稿人】 安徽大学
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