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1-6岁汉语儿童叙事能力发展的个案研究

【作者】 方笑

【导师】 李慧敏;

【作者基本信息】 安徽大学, 语言学及应用语言学, 2020, 硕士

【摘要】 本研究对一名女童FLZ进行了1到6岁的语料跟踪收集,通过CLAN系统转写成十余万字的文本语料,从中筛选出四万余字的叙事语料,建立本文研究的语料库,对FLZ的叙事能力进行研究。儿童叙事能力的发展不仅体现在说单个句子时的语法和词汇能力,还体现在说一个句子以上时的故事组织能力。通过对FLZ叙事话语中的语法发展、词汇发展、故事组织能力发展三方面进行数据统计和分析,全面描写FLZ叙事语言能力的发展过程,探究其叙事能力的发展特点。试图呈现该阶段FLZ叙事能力发展的个性和特征,以及汉语儿童叙事能力发展的共性和规律,同时探究影响汉语儿童叙事能力发展的因素。本文分为六个章节:第一章为绪论。主要包括研究目的、研究意义、研究方法和研究思路。介绍了本文研究的对象、收集语料的方式、语料库建立的过程以及运用的软件和程序,包括CHILDES系统、CLAN系统等。第二章是研究综述。梳理了国外儿童叙事能力发展研究成果以及汉语儿童叙事能力发展的研究现状,包括叙事的定义,国内外叙事能力的研究方法和不同维度,影响儿童叙事能力发展的因素研究,以及本文的研究角度。第三章研究了FLZ叙事话语中语法发展的情况。通过平均语句长度这一指标研究1至6岁的FLZ语法发展的整体趋势,并通过最长五句话语的平均长度这一指标对4岁以后的语法发展做进一步补充说明。探究发现FLZ的语法发展总体是随着年龄的增长而不断增长的,具体来说分为独词句阶段、快速增长阶段、波动发展阶段以及稳定阶段。特别是在4岁以后,最长五句话语的平均长度逐渐增加为平均语句长度的2.4倍,说明语法的复杂程度不断增加,叙事能力随着语法的发展而不断增强。第四章考察了FLZ叙事话语中词汇发展的情况。通过总词型与总词频的比值这一指标测量词汇丰富性的整体发展趋势,并通过总词型这一指标计算儿童叙事话语中的主要词类的词型和词频,探究不同词类发展速度和顺序。研究得出FLZ词汇发展的总体趋势是随着年龄的增长而不断增长的,叙事能力也随着词汇丰富性的增长而不断增强,词汇的发展经历了初期独词句阶段、快速增长阶段和较高水平阶段,24个月左右为FLZ的言语爆发期,词型和词频量都出现了快速增长。由于词型和词频发展的不平衡,名词和动词相较于其他词增长最快,动词和副词的增长速度则较稳定地保持在较高水平,形容词、代词、量词、体貌助词等则始终呈缓慢的增长速度。第五章讨论了FLZ叙事话语中故事组织能力的发展情况。本章从故事结构、叙事评价和叙事顺序三个维度,探究其故事组织能力发展规律。结果显示随着年龄的增长,儿童所叙述故事的结构趋于完整,16至24个月期间,叙事事件和叙事评价的表达最先出现且次数最多,使用形容词、副词、情绪和否定的叙事评价也开始出现,同时出现承接关系词和时间连词;25至48个月期间,人物时地和引述的表达开始出现,同时叙事事件的次数最多,发展最快,使用强调、重复的用法也开始出现;49至74个月期间,逐渐出现了结语以及表达夸张、状态、状态的用法,同时还出现了因果关系和体态表达。第六章结合具体的叙事话语对影响FLZ叙事能力发展的因素进行探讨。主要从儿童内部因素和外部环境因素两个方面对该阶段儿童叙事能力发展的因素进行讨论。儿童内部因素包括儿童的情感态度和认知能力,外部环境因素包括成人语言输入和家庭文化环境。最后一部分为结论。对本文的主要结论进行归纳总结,指出了研究中存在的不足之处,并对未来儿童叙事能力发展的研究工作提出了一些展望。

【Abstract】 The aim of this thesis is to investigate the development of the narrative ability of a Mandarine-speaking child(FLZ)aged from 1 to 6 years old.Through 6 years tracked,we collected the daily conversation of FLZ and selected the narrative discourses about 40 thousand words,transliterating into the CLAN system and building up a corpus database of this study.Children’s narrative ability not only reflects the grammatical ability and lexical competence while saying a single sentence,but also the ability of organizing when speaking multiple sentences.This study aims at the development of grammatical ability,lexical ability,and the story organization ability in FLZ’s narrative discourses through accuracy statistics and analysis,exploring the development characteristics of children’s narrative ability.In addition,this paper attempts to present the individuality of FLZ’s narrative ability,the commonness and regularity of the development of Mandarine-speaking children’s narrative ability,as well as the factors of narrative ability.The thesis is divided into six chapters:The first chapter is the introduction,it illustrates the purpose,background,significance,methods,and main content of the research.It also introduces the object of this case study,the way of corpus collection,the process of building corpus database,the software and procedure,including CHILDES and CLAN system.The second chapter is the research summary of children’s narrative ability,it summarizes the related research both at home and abroad,including the definition of narrative,the research methods,the dimensions of narrative ability,and the factors influencing the development of children’s narrative ability,as well as the research angles of this thesis.The third chapter studies the grammatical development in FLZ’s narrative discourses.The first index is Mean Length of Utterance(MLU)used to reflect the overall trend of FLZ’s grammatical development from 1 to 6 years old.The second index called Mean Length of the longest five sentences(MLU5),it explains the grammatical development after 4 years old and represents the highest level of children’s grammatical development.The process of FLZ’s grammatical development can be divided into three stages: holophrastic stage,rapid growth stage,fluctuating and stable development stage.After the age of 4,MLU5 gradually increased to 2.4 times of MLU,representing the highest level of grammatical complexity.So FLZ’s expression ability,cognitive ability and grammatical structure gradually improved with the growth of age,the narrative ability also constantly enhanced with the development of grammatical ability.The fourth chapter studies the lexical development in FLZ’s narrative discourses.The lexical richness is examined by two indices: Type-token Ratio(TTR)and Number of Different Words(NDW).The increase of TTR can reflect the improvement of application in collocation.The increase of NDW can calculate the frequency of using different words,the different development rate and the order of main word types.The development of lexical has gone through three stages,including the initial holophrastic stage,the rapid growth stage and the higher level stage.The outbreak period of FLZ’s lexical development is about 24 months.With the expansion of FLZ’s vocabulary,the narrative ability enhanced,so that she can narrate more complex events.However,there are some differences in the growth rate of different word types because of the unbalanced development.The fifth chapter discusses the story organization ability in FLZ’s narrative discourses.Through three indices: narrative structure,narrative evaluation and narrative temporality,counting the number of occurrences in narrative discourse to explore its development regularity.The structure of FLZ’ s narrative discourses tends to be complete,and the number of occurrences of these three indices gradually increases with age,the narrative ability also increases with the growth of story organization ability.There also exists different development sequence within different dimensions.During the period of 16-24 months,the expression of narrative events and evaluation first appeared,the usage of adjectives,adverbs,emotions and negations also began to appear,at the same time,there were sequential connectives and temporal connectives.During the period of 25-48 months,the words that express the orientation and closing began to appear,while the number of narrative events was the most fast-growing,and the use of emphasis and repetition for effect also began to appear.During the period of 49-74 months,the use of intensifiers,verbal qualifiers and the causal connectives and aspectual expressions gradually appeared.The sixth chapter is about the factors related to the development of FLZ’s narrative ability from two aspects,including children’s internal factors and external environmental factors.Children’s internal factors include the emotional attitude and the cognitive ability,the external environmental factors include the language input of adults and the family cultural environment.The last part is the conclusion.It summarizes the main conclusions of this thesis,pointing out some shortcomings of this research,and puts forward to the future research of the development of children’s narrative ability.

  • 【网络出版投稿人】 安徽大学
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