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3-6岁儿童叙事性绘画研究

【作者】 张怡

【导师】 华爱华;

【作者基本信息】 华东师范大学, 学前教育学, 2020, 博士

【摘要】 当下的幼儿园美术活动存在着对儿童自主表现力的囚禁,充斥着技术化的规训、成人价值为中心的霸权,使得作为自主表达的儿童绘画被异化。绘画过程的高度示范化,割裂了绘画与儿童自主表现之间的天然联系,进而使儿童在绘画活动中先天赋予的叙事天性被遮蔽。因此,关注儿童叙事性绘画问题,正是对当下儿童艺术教育刻板化技能塑造的异化之境的突围,也是对当下儿童艺术教育功利化、成人化取向的批判,更是对作为叙事的儿童绘画本性的解蔽和回归。基于此,本研究以3-6岁儿童叙事性绘画为对象,以叙事学、符号学等相关学科理论为基础,论证了儿童叙事性绘画的内涵特征及价值意义。同时运用访谈法、作品分析法等考察了自发绘画场域及幼儿园集体绘画场域中儿童叙事性绘画的存在状况,揭示了儿童叙事性绘画的重要影响因素。最后从观念层面和实践层面提出使儿童绘画回归叙事性的可能路径。具体而言,本研究分为三个部分:第一部分是对儿童叙事性绘画内涵特征的理性追述。以文献梳理和理性思辨的方式对儿童绘画中叙事性的意涵特征、价值功能进行分析论证。首先对美术教育史上有关儿童绘画中叙事性话题的讨论进行历史梳理,获取理解儿童绘画中叙事性的理论依据。其次,论证儿童绘画中叙事性的本体意涵,阐明儿童在绘画中的叙事是一种符号叙事和游戏叙事。进而,发现儿童绘画中的叙事性是幼稚心理的反映。最后,探讨儿童叙事性绘画内涵的价值,发现儿童在叙事性绘画的过程中促进了思维、语言的发展,实现了情感的表达,完善了自我意识。第二部分是对3-6岁儿童自发绘画场域中叙事性绘画的现实考证。包括三方面内容:叙事性绘画在3-6岁儿童自发绘画类型中的占比情况、3-6岁儿童叙事性绘画中叙事水平的考察、3-6岁儿童叙事性绘画特点的分析。研究发现3-6岁儿童自发绘画中存在三种绘画类型:无意义涂鸦、罗列式形象表征、叙事性绘画。叙事性绘画是3-6岁儿童自发绘画中最主要的类型。叙事性绘画在3-6岁儿童自发绘画中的比例随年龄增长逐渐提高。同时,发现3-6岁儿童在叙事性绘画中叙事的水平随年龄增长不断提高。发现3-6岁儿童的叙事性绘画作品在叙事主体、叙事对象、叙事文本、叙事内容、叙事过程方面呈现着一些独特之处。第三部分是对幼儿园集体绘画场域中叙事性绘画的现实考证。包括示范教学以及绘画工具材料对儿童叙事性绘画的影响。发现示范教学限制儿童绘画中的叙事,导致儿童在集体绘画中无事可叙、低水平叙事或雷同叙事。示范教学影响儿童叙事性绘画的关键原因在于简笔画的模式化特征使儿童在绘画中追求形象复制的逼真性而失去了自己的表现方式。发现绘画工具材料的不同熟悉程度对叙事性绘画的影响不同。儿童面对熟悉的工具材料时,对材料的选择取决于叙事表达的主观意愿;儿童面对的既有熟悉工具材料,又有陌生工具材料时,对材料的选择取决于对陌生工具材料的好奇心;儿童使用陌生工具材料时,在绘画中无事可叙或进行低水平叙事。陌生工具材料影响儿童叙事性绘画的关键原因在于儿童将陌生工具材料当作玩具,产生探索行为,从而无法叙事。最后从观念层面和实践层面提出了使儿童绘画回归叙事性的建议。包括构建新的儿童绘画理解范式,重建审美感受与表现的美术教学,同时重塑幼儿教师的角色身份,使其成为儿童叙事性绘画的意义接收者。从而使儿童绘画理解的视域由技术规训转向生命叙事,使绘画成为儿童主体解放、生命意义得以彰显的场域。

【Abstract】 At present,the art activities in kindergartens are confined to the independent expression of children,full of technical discipline and hegemony centered on adult value.As an independent expression,children’s drawing is alienated.The highly demonstrative drawing process breaks the natural connection between drawing and children’s expression.The narrative nature endowed by children in drawing activities is obscured.Therefore,focus on the question of children’s narrative drawing,it is not only a breakthrough to the alienation of the stereotyped skills in children’s art education,but also a criticism of the utilitarian and adult-oriented orientation of children’s art education,and a returning to the nature of children’s drawing as a narrative.Based on this,this study takes the narrative drawing of children aged 3-6 as the object,and based on the theories of related disciplines such as narratology,semiotics and so on,makes a rational description of the connotation characteristics and value significance of children’s narrative drawing.At the same time,interview method are used to investigate the existence of children’s narrative drawing in the spontaneous drawing and the kindergarten collective drawing,and the important influencing factors of children’s narrative drawing were revealed.Finally,from the perspective of concept and practice,this paper proposes a possible way to make children’s drawing return to narrative.Specifically,this study is divided into three parts:The first part is a rational description of the connotation of children’s narrative drawing.This paper mainly analyzes and demonstrates the ontological meaning,characteristics and value of narrative attribute in children’s narrative drawing.Firstly,the discussion of narrative topics in children’s drawings in the history of art education is sorted out to obtain the theoretical basis for understanding narrative in children’sdrawings.Secondly,it demonstrates the ontological meaning of narrative attribute in children’s drawing and illustrates that children’s narrative in drawing is a symbolic narrative and a game narrative.Thirdly,it is found that narrative attribute in children’s drawings is a reflection of childish psychology.Finally,the paper discusses the value of the connotation of children’s narrative drawing,and finds that children promote the development of thinking and language,realize the expression of emotion and improve their self-consciousness in the process of narrative drawing.The second part is a realistic research on narrative drawing in the spontaneous painting of children aged 3-6.It includes three aspects:the proportion of narrative drawing in spontaneous drawings of children aged 3-6 years,the investigation of narrative level in narrative drawing of children aged 3-6 years,and the analysis of the characteristics of narrative drawing of children aged 3-6 years.It is found that there are three forms of spontaneous drawing in children aged 3-6 years: meaningless graffiti,enumerative representation and narrative drawing.Narrative drawing is the most important type of spontaneous drawing among children aged 3-6.The proportion of narrative drawing in spontaneous drawing of children aged 3-6 gradually increases with age.At the same time,it is found that the narrative level of children in narrative drawing increases with the growth of children’s age.It is found that the narrative drawings of children aged 3-6 present some unique features in narrative subject,narrative object,narrative text,narrative content and narrative process.The third part is a realistic research on narrative drawing in the kindergarten group drawing.Including demonstration teaching and the influence of drawing materials on children’s narrative drawing.It is found that the demonstration teaching limits the narration in children’s drawings,which leads to children having nothing to narrate,low-level narration or similar narration in group drawing.The key reason for the influence of demonstration teaching on children’s narrative drawing is that the stereotyped feature of stick figure makes children pursue the fidelity of imagereproduction in drawing and lose their own way of expression.It is found that different familiarity of drawing tools and materials has different influences on narrative drawing.It is found that when children are faced with familiar tool materials,their choice of materials in drawing depends on the subjective will of narrative expression.When children are faced with both familiar and unfamiliar materials,their choice of materials in drawing depends on curiosity.Children using unfamiliar tools and materials can not produce narrative or carry out low-level narrative in drawing.The key reason for the influence of unfamiliar tool materials on children’s narrative drawing lies in the fact that children regard unfamiliar tool materials as toys and conduct exploratory behaviors,thus unable to narrate.Finally,some Suggestions are put forward from the perspective of concept and practice.It includes constructing a new understanding paradigm of children’s drawing,reconstructing the art teaching of aesthetic feeling and expression,and reshaping the role of preschool teachers to become the meaning receivers of children’s narrative drawing.Thus,the understanding of children’s drawing is changed from technical discipline to life narration,and drawing becomes a field in which children’s subject is liberated and the meaning of life is manifested.

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  • 【网络出版投稿人】 华东师范大学
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