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核心素养导向的高中化学教师课程实践力提升路径研究

【作者】 王峰

【导师】 王祖浩;

【作者基本信息】 华东师范大学, 教育博士(专业学位), 2020, 博士

【摘要】 目前,我国基础教育正进入教育改革的深化阶段。新的课程标准要求在让学生学习知识的同时促进他们的核心素养发展,这就要求教师要理解课程标准,在教学中开发创新教学策略来鼓励和支持核心素养的发展,对教师而言这是一个巨大的挑战。如何应对这一挑战?教师对课程标准的理解与认同程度如何?他们的课程实施情况如何?有哪些困惑?需要怎样的专业支持?如何通过有效的专业发展项目来提升教师课程的理解力与实践力?这些是本研究的基本问题。论文首先对高中化学教师进行调查研究,了解教师对于课程标准与核心素养的认识现状,收集并分析教师在教学中融入核心素养时遇到的困难。调查发现,虽然教育政策的发布可以为课堂教学实践的改进创造条件,但它无法真正影响到教师在课堂上的教学行为。作为课程实施者,教师会将自己的个性化理解和过往的教学经验继续带入课堂,而这些教学方式并不总是与课程改革的方向一致。接下来论文对4位高中化学教师进行了一项基于半结构化访谈、刺激回忆任务和观察的定性研究。在这个过程中更充分地观察教师的行为,发现他们个性化的经历,听到他们独特的声音,深入分析这些教师对于课程改革与核心素养的态度与看法,了解作为课程改革隐性推动力的高中化学教师的学科素养结构。研究发现,虽然新发布的课程标准提出了详细的学科核心素养体系,但尚缺乏对内隐的技能与素养培养方法更精细的设计。如何准确理解和有效执行课程标准,尤其是对于其中核心素养及学业要求的理解与把握,是目前高中化学教师面临着的一大挑战。为提升教师的课程理解力与实践力,研究者设计并实施了为期十天的暑期专业发展项目,项目中研究者与课程专家构建了一个分类框架。教师使用分类框架理解课程标准中的学业要求,分析化学试题和课堂教学,明确在设计与实施教学时以及学习评价中应融入其中的核心素养。研究发现,为教师所提供的学习方式对于教师专业发展和课程改革的成功至关重要,只有为教师提供更有效的指导方式,才能让他们准确理解课程标准设计者的意图。研究者开发了两个基于设计的研究项目。项目1中教师在理解教育政策与课程理念的基础上设计并开展单元教学,将自己的经验与知识运用于单元教学的设计与实施过程中。在该项目的实施过程中,教师和学生共同努力并积极尝试了促进学科核心素养发展的化学课程的开发与实践工作。项目2尝试以可持续发展教育为主旨设计化学选修课程,并由课程专家与教师合作设计了具体的课程教学材料。研究发现,让教师参与课程开发的优点之一是能够提升课程设计与实施的品质,并促进对于诸如学科核心素养的意义以及对学习者的要求等问题的讨论。这两个项目将教师置于课程开发与实施的中心,鼓励教师在真实的课堂环境中开展教学改革并进行反思。研究发现,在新旧课程标准过渡的时候,教师必须经历一段时间的学习以适应课程改革带来的种种变化,而这种学习的深入程度与认同程度取决于教师对课程改革的本质和基本教育原理的理解程度。这种适应新变化的学习最好在教师自己的课堂中进行,而不是仅仅在短期的集中培训中依靠听取专家讲座去实现。只有将教师置于课程开发与实施的中心,鼓励他们在真实的课堂环境中开展教学改革并反思,才能够帮助教师运用自己的专业判断进行决策,教师和学习者才更有可能展开有意义的对话,去讨论哪些因素可以促进核心素养的发展以及为什么这些因素能够促进。如果能够通过专业发展活动让教师认同课程改革的必要性和正确性,并能够自己分析判断自己的教学工作是否符合国家课程的设计愿景,那么他们就更愿意去承担改革与创新的风险。因此,倾听教师的声音,给予专业的支持,是发挥教师在课程改革中作用的关键因素。本研究在实践中收集的证据也能够帮助课程开发者反思和改善相关的政策与活动,为课程专家分析教师专业发展的需求提供资料并给出建议,为我国化学课程的进一步开发和研究提供了实践经验。

【Abstract】 Education in China is going through a significant period of change.A move to competence-based curricula that focus on skills development as well as knowledge-building will require teachers to understand the learning outcomes and develop innovative teaching and learning strategies.This will be a significant challenge for teachers.How to deal with this challenge? How well do teachers understand and agree with the curriculum standards? How is their curriculum being implemented? What are their confusions? What kind of professional support is needed? How to improve the understanding and practice of the curriculum through effective professional development programs? These are the basic questions of this study.The study makes an investigation of the high school chemistry teachers’ point of view about curriculum development and its implementation,identify challenges or difficulties encountered in embedding key competencies.Whilst policy can set the conditions for effective practice,it can not control how teachers will act in the classroom.Practitioners bring their own knowledge and experience to teaching,but their way is not always consistent with policy and administrative decisions.Then the study employed a qualitative research design among four high–school chemistry teachers,which involves semi-structured interviews,observations,and a stimulated recall task and interview,to gain an understanding of chemistry teachers’ perceptions of reform and their role in implementing reform and key competencies practices in the chemistry classroom.Utilizing such a design allowed researcher to understand more fully a period of time and uncover the teachers’ unique experiences and hear their unique voices,as well as gain an understanding of high school chemistry teachers’ knowledge of disciplinary literacy as the implied framework of reform.Although the specifications present a detailed set of disciplinary key competences,a finer grained representation of the underlying skills is lacking in the standards document.Therefore,teachers are facing challenges understanding and effectively implementing the standards,especially with regards to the disciplinary key competences and learning outcomes.In order to improve teachers’ understanding and implementing ability of curriculum,in a two-week summer professional development program,an organising framework which is built on key competences is developed to help teachers to interpret the learning outcomes of the new curriculum standards,the chemistry questions and the classroom instruction,and recognise the embedded competences as they plan for teaching,learning and assessment.And a study in which teachers were asked to use the framework to analyse their understanding of learning outcomes shows that,the way of learning to offer teachers is critical to the professional development of teachers and to the success of revised curricula.Careful consideration must be given of the best way to provide guidance so that the new curriculum is interpreted in the way that the developers intended.The study developed two design-based research projects in which teachers and students actively contributed to the process of curriculum development and implementation.In the first project the teachers worked at the interface between policy and research,and brought their experience and knowledge to the Unit Learning Approach design process.It also demonstrates how key competences can be embedded in learning outcomes.The second project describes the relevance of chemistry for sustainability and presents examples from the chemistry classroom.In the project the teaching and learning materials were designed by the experts and teachers.One of the benefits of including teachers in curriculum development at any level is the potential to increase capacity,and to facilitate the discussion about,for example,what disciplinary key competences mean,and what performance they demand of learners.The main research findings are as follows: During transition periods of the new curriculum standards,teachers must undergo a period of learning as they adapt to change.This learning is contingent on their understanding the nature of the reform and the rationale.Rather than relying on listening to experts’ lectures in the short-term intensive training,learning to adapt to change is best done in the teacher’s own classroom.Placing teachers at the centre of curriculum development and implementation allows for innovations that require changes in teaching,learning and assessment methods to be trialled in real classrooms,and reflected on in practical settings.When teachers are able to use their professional judgement in making decisions about curriculum,teachers and learners are more likely to engage in meaningful conversation with one another about what works in teaching and learning and why.It is easier to take risks if teachers can check that what they are doing is falling within the broad ideals and parameters of the national curriculum.Listening to teachers’ voices and providing professional support are the key factors for teachers to play their roles in curriculum reform.The study gathers evidence from practice to help inform policy and practice and advise curriculum developer on the professional development needs of teachers,provides some experiences and lessons for further developmental and implemental work of chemistry curriculum of high school.

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  • 【网络出版投稿人】 华东师范大学
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